ICMCTF2003 Session FP-1: Symposium F Poster Session

Monday, April 28, 2003 5:00 PM in Room Town & Country

Monday Afternoon

Time Period MoP Sessions | Topic F Sessions | Time Periods | Topics | ICMCTF2003 Schedule

FP-1-1 Electrical Properties of Aluminum Nitride Thin Films Prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition
Zhenghua An (City University of Hong Kong); C.L. Men (Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology); Z.K. Xu, P.K. Chu (City University of Hong Kong); C.L. Lin (Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology)
Aluminum nitride (AlN), a typical wide bandgap semiconductor (6.3eV), is also a promising dielectric material, especially for high voltage, high power microelectronic devices using SiC as the substrate. Recently, C. L. Men et al proposed to use AlN thin films as the buried layer in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) structures to alleviate the self-heating effect (SHE) that hinders the use of traditional SOI materials in high voltage, high power application. Although much work has been done to grow high quality AlN thin films employing various techniques, the electrical properties of AlN films are most important for their final success. In this work, we prepared AlN thin films on p-Si(100) substrates at different substrate temperatures by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Microstructural analysis shows that the film deposited at room temperature has a microcrystalline wurtzite structure with (002) preferential orientation and the grain size increases with increasing substrate temperature. Polarization-electrical field (P-E) hysteresis was obtained for the sample prepared at room temperature using an RT-66 system. A systematic electrical property investigation including dielectric properties and dynamic charge was subsequently conducted to determine the origin of the P-E hysteresis. The influence of the large spontaneous polarization of AlN will also be discussed in this paper.
FP-1-2 The Characterization of AlN Films Deposited by Dual Ion Beam Sputtering System
S. Han (National Taichung Institute of Technology); Hong-Ying Chen, C.H. Cheng, F.-H. Lu (National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan, ROC); Han. C. Shih (National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan, ROC)
The properties of AlN films deposited by dual ion beam sputtering (DIBS) using aluminum sputtered with inert Ar+ ion-beam voltage varying from 400 to 1200 V and N2+ ions as a source of nitrogen have been examined in this work. The relevant crystallography, microstructure, and elemental distributions of the AlN films were analyzed using XRD, FESEM and SIMS, respectively. The AlN films possess the preferred orientation of c-axis (002) plane at an optimal ion beam voltage of 800 V and change to a mixture of (100) and (002) planes accounting for the radiation damages at ion beam voltages > 800 V. The film thickness increases with increasing ion beam voltage to a steady state value of 210 nm at an ion beam voltage of ~ 1200 V. Under the optimal condition (800 V), we are able to obtain the c-axis orientation of the AlN (002) film with dense and excellent crystallography, which are useful materials for surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices.
FP-1-3 Characterisation of Ruthenium Dioxide Sputtered Films by Raman Spectroscopy
L.-J. Meng (Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Portugal.); V. Teixeira (University of Minho, Portugal); M.P.dos Santos (Universidade de Ãvora, Portugal)
RuO2 thin film is one of the most attractive materials for interconnects contacts, gate electrodes and diffusion barriers in Si devices because of its low resistivity, good thermal stability and diffusion barrier properties. Ruthenium dioxide films have been prepared by rf reactive magnetron sputtering at different oxygen partial pressures, different total sputtering pressures and different substrate temperatures (RT- 500°C). Raman measurements have been done for all the films. The three major Raman features, namely the Eg, A1g and B2g modes can be observed the films. The films prepared at high oxygen partial pressure and low total pressure show weak A1g peak intensity. The films prepared at low temperature show high B2g peak intensity. As the temperature is increased, the intensity of the Eg Raman peak increases. That indicates a variation of the structure. By fitting the Raman peak, it has been found that the peak position of the RuO2 films has a red shift comparing to that of the single crystal RuO2. This peak shift may be related with the residual stress in the films. In this work, these phenomena have been discussed.
FP-1-4 Annealing Effect on Scattering Mechanism in Bi80Sb20 Thin Films
R.C. Mallik, S. Kasiviswanathan, V. Damodara Das (Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, India)
Bi80Sb20 thin films of different thicknesses were prepared by flash evaporation. The films were annealed at 150°C in vacuum for 2 hours in order to improve crystallinity. Polycrystalline nature of the films was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microcopy. Thermoelectric power and electrical resistivity of the as-grown as well as annealed films were measured in the temperature range from 100 to 300K. All the films showed negative thermoelectric power, indicating n-type conduction. The scattering index parameter was obtained from the analysis of thermopower and resistivity data. Annealed films showed a lower value of suggesting a decrease in defect density and consequent lowering of carrier scattering.
FP-1-5 Electroless Plated Copper for Deep Sub-micron Interconnect Metallization - A Comparison of the Catalytic Effect Between PIII Cu and PIII Pd
J.-H. Lin, W.-J. Hsieh (National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan, ROC); T.-L. Lee (National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan, ROC); Han. C. Shih (National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan, ROC)
The major goal of this paper is to understand the grain growth kinetics and gap-filling capability of the electroless plated copper films on the PIII Pd and Cu catalytic a-Ta:N surface respectively. Both patterned and non-patterned wafers were employed using Pd or Cu as catalyst by PIII after which copper was electroless plated on an a-Ta:N/FSG/Si 3-layered structure. Either Pd or Cu atoms were sputtered from a negatively biased target and ionized in an argon inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The metal ions (Pd or Cu) were adequately implanted into the substrate with a highly pulsed negative bias (~4000 V). The growth rate of electroless plated copper films was found to be different at the initial stage; faster copper films’ growth rate was observed on the PIII Pd seeds compared to the PIII Cu seeds. The average grain size of the as-deposited copper films was found to be different, too; larger copper grain (~292.4 nm) was formed on the PIII Cu seeds compared to those formed on the PIII Pd seeds (~86.2 nm). After 700°C annealing, the similar copper grain size was formed similarly on both seeds; the average copper grain sizes became ~1112.4 for Pd seeds and ~1176.5 nm for Cu seeds, respectively. The observation of FESEM indicated that under higher substrate bias voltage (-4000 V) and higher plasma ionization (ICP feed power: 80 W), the electroless copper grows upward from the bottom of the vias and trenches layer by layer was clearly disclosed.
FP-1-6 Effect of Thickness on the Structure and Properties of Nanocrystalline Zirconium Nitride Thin Film by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering
S.M Tung, J.-H. Huang, G.P. Yu (National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan, ROC)
Zirconium nitride (ZrN) films were deposited on 304 stainless steel using DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering (UBM) technique. The aim of this study was to investigate the variation of grain size with different thickness and the effect of different grain size on the mechanical and corrosion properties of ZrN-coated 304 stainless steel. During the deposition of ZrN, ion bombardment helped to control the grain size and the preferred orientation. It was related to process parameters such as bias voltage and reactive partial pressures. After deposition, the grain size of ZrN was estimated with Scherrer equation and the preferred orientation was characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD). All the grain size was less than 100nm. Thickness and depth profiles of compositions were measured by secondary ion spectroscopy (SIMS). Hardness of the films was determined by nanoindentation. N/Zr ratios and packing factors were measured by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). The resistivity of ZrN films was characterized by four-point probe and related to the packing factor. The preliminary results showed that hardness values of ZrN film ranged from 14 to 32 GPa. The grain size ranged from 100 to 10nm. (111) was the dominant preferred orientation. From the results of RBS and nanoindentation, packing factor and hardness both increased with increasing thickness of ZrN films.
FP-1-7 Structural and Electrical Properties of Metal-Ferroelectric-Insulator-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors Using a Pt/Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12/CeO2/Si Structure
C.I. Kim, J.M. Lee, K.T. Kim (Chungang University, South Korea)
Ferroelectric thin films such as Bi-based layered perovskite (SrBi2Ta2O9, Bi4Ti3O12, Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12, etc.) and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films have been extensively investigated for non-volatile ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) devices. Because non-volatile memories using metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MFSFETs) make non-destructive operation possible, rewriting for destroyed information is not needed. However, the MFSFETs have been some problems such as the formation of an amorphous SiO2 layer with a low dielectric constant at the film/Si interface and interdiffusion between the film and Si. To solve them, a metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor (MFIS) structure has been demonstrated. The most important thing in developing a MFIS structure is to find a good insulator that acts as a buffer between the Si substrate and the ferroelectric material. Insulators such as CeO2, MgO, and Y2O3 have relative high dielectric constants of 10 to 20 ranges, low leakage current, good interface characteristics, and compatibility. The MFIS capacitors were fabricated using a metalorganic decomposition method. Thin layers of CeO2 were deposited as a buffer layer on Si substrate and BLT thin films were used as a ferroelectric layer. The electrical and structural properties of the MFIS structure were investigated by varying the CeO2 layer thickness and BLT crystallization temperature. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the phase of the BLT thin films and the quality of the CeO2 layer. The width of the memory window in the C-V curves for the MFIS structure increased with increasing thickness of the CeO2 layer. The experimental results show that the BLT-based MFIS structure is suitable for non-volatile memory FETs with large memory window.
FP-1-8 Active Soft Solder Deposition by MSIP-PVD-Process
E. Lugscheider (Aachen University, Germany); K. Bobzin (Materials Science Institute (WW), Germany); A. Erdle (Aachen University, Germany)

In different technical areas Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (M.E.M.S.) e.g. micro pumps, micro sensors and actuators and micro dosage systems are in use today. The components of these M.E.M.S. consist of various materials, which have to be joined together. To join materials like ceramics, plastics or metals to a hybrid M.E.M.S. established joining technologies have to be adjusted. For the assembling and mounting of temperature sensible micro components a low temperature joining process, e.g. Transient Liquid Phase (TLP) bonding or an active soft soldering process can be performed.

In this paper the deposition of a low melting active soft solder with an active substrate cooling will be presented. The substrate temperatures were set and controlled by an additional cooling unit which was integrated into the sputtering facility. In the performed experiments a substrate temperature range from -40°C to +20°C was investigated. The effects of these different substrate temperatures to the microstructure and the soldering suitability of the solder system were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nanoindentation and soldering tests. The chemical composition of the deposited solder systems were examined by GDS-analysis.

FP-1-9 Plasma Diagnostics on Synthesis Mechanism of Chromium Nitride Coatings
Chi-Lung Chang, D.-Y. Wang (Ming-Dao University, Taiwan, ROC)
Chromium nitrides (CrN) possess excellent mechanical, tribological and wetting characteristics for precision forming and molding applications. In this study, CrN coatings were deposited by using cathodic arc evaporation and unbalanced magnetron sputtering process. The reaction mechanism, including nitrogen dissociation, metal ionization, and chromium nitride deposition was examined by plasma diagnostics techniques. A Langmuir probe was used to analyze the plasma potential, ion density, electron temperature, and electron energy distribution. A quadrupole mass spectrometer was employed to analyze the mass spectra of neutrals, radicals as well as positive and negative ions. An optical emission spectrometer was installed to monitor the density of ionic species. The diagnostics provides a clear insight into the correlation between deposition parameters and CrN properties. Accordingly, the further modification of CrN films such as stress reduction, hardness enhancement, and microstructure evolution via plasma alteration can be based upon. Keywords: plasma diagnostics, chromium nitride, unbalanced magnetron sputtering, cathodic arc evaporation.
FP-1-10 Electrical, Optical and Mechanical Properties of CrNy and Cr1-xMexNy Thin Films
E. Martínez (Institute of Physics of Complex Matter, FSB-EPFL, Switzerland); O. Banakh (Ecole d'Ingénieur de l'Arc Jurassien, Switzerland); R. Sanjinés, F. Lévy (Institute of Physics of Complex Matter, Switzerland)
We investigate the optical, electrical and mechanical properties of CrNy and Cr1-xMexNy (Me = Al, Si) films as a function of N and Me contents near the fcc CrN stoichiometric composition. Polycrystalline CrNy with 0.931-xMexNy with 0y and Cr1-xMexNy films are strongly dependent on their chemical composition. The main changes in the optical properties of CrNy and Cr1-xMexNy films as a function of N or Me content mainly occur below 1.5 eV. Substoichiometric CrNy films with 0.93RT values of (1.2-7) 10-3 Ωcm, metallic behavior and an antiferromagnetic (AF) orthorhombic phase transition at about 260 K. In contrast, overstoichiometric CrNy (1.051-xMexNy (Me = Al, Si) films have resistivity values ρRT = (1.2- 4) 10-2 Ωcm. The temperature coefficients of the resistivity are negative. The resistivity vs temperature curves are smooth with no discontinuity suggesting no structural AF phase transition in the measured temperature range of 20-320 K. Finally, the hardness values of CrNy films are less dependent on the chemical composition but are influenced by the film morphology: the nano hardness values of (111) CrNy are typically 12-14 GPa while (002) CrNy exhibit nano hardness values of 18 GPa. The addition of small amounts of Si increases the hardness values up to 22 GPa for Cr0.95Si0.05N.
FP-1-11 Effect of Film Thickness on the Structure and Properties of ZrN Films Deposited on AISI 316 Stainless Steel by Ion Plating
H.C. Yang, G.P. Yu, J.-H. Huang (National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan, ROC)
Due to its better hardness, chemical inertness and golden color than TiN film, ZrN film is a highly promising and becoming a popular coating material. The in-depth study of the relation between processing, structure and properties of ZrN film can provide further understanding of the material and can be use as a reference for the industrial applications. ZrN and ZrN/Zr mutilayers were deposited using hollow cathode discharge ion-plating (HCD-IP) on 316 stainless steel for increasing corrosion resistance; the Zr underlayer was for improving the adhesion on the substrate. The processing parameters such as N2 partial pressure and substrate bias were selected from the previous research, in which the optimization of the coating process were carried out by single variable method. In the present study the thickness of the ZrN film was chosen as the controlling parameter and ZrN films with different thickness were produced. After deposition, X-ray diffraction (XRD) was utilized to determine the preferred orientations, lattice parameters, and the residual stress of the films. The composition depth profiles of ZrN films were obtained using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The columnar structure and the grain size of the film were observed and measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The N/Zr ratios were measured by both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). The packing factors were also obtained from RBS. Hardness of the films was measured by nanoindentation to avoid substrate effect. The effect of film thickness and Zr underlayer on the film structure, such as preferred orientation, grain size, and the film properties such as residual stress, hardness, and corrosion resistance were investigated and correlated.
FP-1-12 Etching Characteristic and Mechanism of Bi4-xEuxTi3O12 (BET) Thin Films with Cl2/Ar Plasma
C.I. Kim, K.T. Lim, D.P. Kim, K.T. Kim (Chungang University, South Korea)
In recent years, some Bi-layered perovskite oxide such as SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) and Bi4-xLaxTi3O12 (BLT) have been intensively studied for use in FRAMs because of its low leakage current, low coercive field, and fatigue-free with simple Pt electrode. The fatigue-free behavior of SBT and BLT thin film was due to the charge compensating effect of Bi2O2 layers resulting in the reduction of space charge and from domain wall unpinning that happens at least as rapidly as domain pinning. However, SBT and BLT thin films have a disadvantage of low remanent polarization for the high-density integration of FRAMs. From the viewpoint of the general formula of Aurivillius compounds, radii of Europium ion (0.95 Å), similar to Bi ion (0.93 Å) in the Bi4Ti3O12(BIT), occupies the A site in the perovskite unit BIT. The europium-substituted BIT (BET) thin films resulted in a large 2Pr, whose value (60.99mC/cm2) is much larger than that of Sm-modified BIT thin film (2Pr = BSmT: 49mC/cm2) and BLT thin film (2Pr = 27mC/cm2) at an applied voltage of 10V. For this advantage, BET thin films have emerged as new ferroelectric materials. However, there is no report on etching BET thin films. Inductively coupled plasma source was used for etching BET because of its high plasma density, low process pressure and easy control bias power. BET thin films were etched with using Cl2/Ar plasma. The experiments were carried out with measuring etch rates and selectivities as a function of gas mixing ratio, rf power, dc bias voltage. The chemical states on the etched surface were investigated with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate the surface morphology of BET thin films exposed in plasma and etching profile.
FP-1-13 Etching Mechanism of the Bi4-xLaxTi3O12 Films Etched in BCl3/Cl2/ArInductively Coupled Plasma
C.I. Kim, D.P. Kim, K.T. Kim (Chungang University, South Korea); A.M. Efremov (Ivanovo State University of Chemistry and Technology, South Korea)

Bi4-xLaxTi3O12 (BLT) thin films have a lot of good features such as low processing temperature and large values of remanent polarization compared with SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT). They also shows high resistance to polarization fatigue due to the charge-compensating role of the (Bi2O2)2+ layers and the chemical stability of the perovskite layers against oxygen vacancies after substituting some La atoms for Bi atoms. The 200-nm BLT thin films were deposited on the Pt electrode by metal organic deposition (MOD). Until now, there are few reports on the etching characteristics of BLT thin films in BCl3/Cl2/Ar inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Therefore, BLT thins films were etched in BCl3/Cl2/Ar with using ICP etching system. The etch rates and selectivity of BLT thin films were investigated as a function of gas mixing ratio, rf power and dc-bias voltage. With adding 20% BCl3 in Cl2/Ar plasma, increasing rf power and dc bias voltage and lowering pressure, the etch rate of BLT increased. To understand the effects of etching parameters on the etch rates of BLT thin films, the atoms of Cl and the ions of Ar were investigated in BCl3/Cl2/Ar plasma using optical emission spectroscopy and Langmuir probe. The etching byproducts were investigated with using quadruple mass spectroscopy (QMS). The heterogeneous reaction of plasma on the surface of the etched BLT was investigated with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface morphologies of samples have been investigated with using atomic force microscopy (AFM). In XPS spectra, the increase of lanthanum oxide concentration was observed for all etched sample in BCl3/Cl2/Ar plasma. It indicates that the removal of lanthanum oxides may be the limiting factor for ICP etching of BLT thin films.

This work was supported by grant No. R01-2001-00268 from the Korea Science & Engineering Foundation.

FP-1-14 Effects of As+-Implantation on the Formation of Iron Silicides in Fe Thin Films on (001)Si
H.T. Lu (National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan, ROC); L.J. Chen (National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan, R.O.C.)
The phase transformation of iron silicides from FeSi to β-FeSi2 on (001)Si and effects of As+-implantation on the transformation have been investigated by sheet resistance measurements, grazing incidence x-ray diffractometry, scanning transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive analysis of x-ray. Phase transformation from FeSi to β-FeSi2 begins at 700°C in the undoped samples. As+-implantation is found to lower the transformation temperature from 700°C to 600°C. The transformation is significantly enhanced by the As+-implantation.
FP-1-15 Annealing Effects of the I-PVD Deposited Copper Films on the Ta-Based Diffusion Barrier Layer
T.-L. Lee (National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan, ROC); J.-H. Lin, Han. C. Shih, C-.C. Lin (National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan, ROC)
The study concentrates on the Cu/diffusion barrier interfacial mechanism of the ionized PVD Ta/TaN bi-layer, TaN and TaSiN thin films in the Cu/barrier/FSG 3-layered system. The copper deposited by ionized PVD with 1 µm thick on different barrier layer were annealed from 150 to 900°C in the 10% H2 + 90% N2 mixed gas for 1 hour. The properties of barrier layers have been investigated as a function of annealing temperatures together with the Cu film. The XRD spectra showed that the Cu/TaN/FSG have obvious Cu (111) preferred orientation and the Cu (111) were strengthen by the 150 to 500°C. The sheet resistance and AES/XPS results showed that TaSiN as the diffusion barrier between copper and FSG up to 900°C; however, Ta/TaN bi-layer as the diffusion barrier failed at lower temperature was due to the formation of tantalum oxide interlayer between Cu and Ta/TaN bi-layer.
FP-1-16 Xps and Afm Study of Lead Sulfide Films Obtained by Chemical Deposition on Glass
J.L. Lopez (Minas Gerais University, Brazil)
Thin lead sulfide polycrystalline films (PbS) were deposited at room temperature on glass by chemical bath deposition (CBD) on corning glass. The chemical bath was prepared by mixing 5 ml of 0.5 M lead acetate solution, 20 ml of 0.5 M NaOH solution, 5 ml of 0.5 thiourea solution and 1.3 ml of 1M of triethanolamine solution. The volume was adjusted to 50 ml with deionized water. Two film series were prepared: in one series the time of deposition was changed and in the other the films were annealed at various temperatures in air. The morphology and microstructure of the films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The AFM images show morphological changes in the surface, which depended on the heat treatment and time of deposition. The composition and electronic structure of the films were analyzed by XPS. In both film series changes in the binding energy have been observed. XPS spectra of S 2p and Pb 4f, 4d levels are discussed. .
FP-1-17 Atmospheric RF Plasma Effects on the Surface Modification
Y.M. Chung, M.J. Jung, G. Han (SungKyunKwan University, South Korea)
Commercial polymer in a form of thin film was used for modification by atmospheric RF Ar plasma mixed with reactive gas. The change of surface properties were monitored by contact angle measurements and its chemical variations were analyzed by FT-IR, and XPS. Both modifications cause surface oxidation of polymer film, which is connected with formation of functional groups enhancing polymer wettability. This process is very fast and efficient in mixed Ar+O2 RF plasma but relatively slower during polymer exposure to others. The interface reaction of sputtered Ti with PVC have been studied using high resolution X-ray diffractometer(XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS). The reactions of Ti with polymer lead to the simultaneous formation of TiCl2(PVC), TiC, Ti-oxide.
FP-1-18 Effect of Ionization Enhancement in Magnetron Sputtering with Solenoidal Coil
Y.M Kim, M.J. Jung, E.H. Bae, J.G. Han (SungKyunKwan University, South Korea)
Magnetron sputtering is a broadly used process for coating thin films for display applications, semiconductor applications, hard coatings, decorative coatings, optical coatings, and so on. In order to enhance the film properties and deposition rate, after a middle 1990s, various magnetron sputtering sources have been developed such as dual magnetron sputtering, ionized magnetron sputtering, grid assisted magnetron sputtering, and so on. We have developed high efficiency magnetron sputtering sources. In this study, we developed magnetron sputtering source with solenoidal coil. The sputtering cathode used in the experiment is a unbalanced magnetron sputtering source with Ti target which is coupled with a solenoidal coil. The ion current was measured by faraday cup. Double langmuir probe was used to measure plasma parameters such as plasma density, electron temperature, plasma potential, floating potential.
FP-1-19 Physical and Mechanical Properties of Polyimide/Titania Hybrid Films
P.-C. Chiang, W.-T. Whang (National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan, ROC); M.-H. Tsai (National Chin-Yi Institute of Technology, Taiwan, ROC)
Metal oxide has been incorporated into polyimide (PI) films in order to improve the potential of these materials for applications. Different contents of titania were added to a polyamic acid (PAA) prepared from 4,4'-oxydianiline (ODA) and pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA). Films of the metal-containing polyamic acids were prepared and cured to the corresponding polyimides by heating at 300' in air. The cured films were characterized for such properties as, glass transition temperature, electrical conductivity and thermal stability. Modulus and tensile strengths of the metal-containing polyimide films were obtained at both ambient and elevated temperatures. Comparison of the refractive index of these hybrid films as a function of metal additive is also made.
FP-1-20 Dependence of the Oxidation Behavior of Ti-Si-N Coating Layer on the Microstructure and Free Silicon
J.-B. Choi, K. Cho, K.H. Kim (Pusan National University, South Korea)
Ti-Si-N coating layers were codeposited on silicon wafer substrates by a DC reactive magnetron sputtering method using titanium and silicon targets in nitrogen-argon gas mixtures. The high-temperature oxidation behavior of the coating layers with the microstructural changes derived from different Si contents was investigated. Ti-Si-N coating layers containing 4.0 at.% Si were oxidized at relatively low temperature of 600°C. With increasing Si content to 10 at.%, the coating layers had a significant improvement in oxidation resistance to 800°C. The improved oxidation resistance by increasing Si content to 10.0 at.% was due to encapsulation of TiN grains by a sufficient amount of grain-boundary phase, amorphous silicon nitride, which prohibited rapid inward diffusion of oxygen atoms. However, the oxidation resistance for Ti-Si-N coating layers with 27.3 at.% Si decreased due to the presence of free silicon which was not nitrified because of the deficiency of reactive nitrogen gas. The effect of the presence of free silicon in the oxidation resistance of Ti-Si-N coating layers was discussed.
FP-1-21 Effects of Substrate Bias Voltage and Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Ti-Si-N Coatings Deposited by a Hybrid System of Arc Ion Plating and Sputtering Techniques
S.R. Choi, O.N. Park, S.-Y. Yoon, K.H. Kim (Pusan National University, South Korea)
Nanocomposite Ti-Si-N coating layers were synthesized by a hybrid system of arc ion plating(AIP) and sputtering techniques using Ti and Si targets under N2/Ar gaseous mixture. The effects of substrate bias voltage and temperature on mechanical properties of Ti-Si-N coating layers were investigated. Ti-Si-N coating layers were deposited on WC-Co substrates using the hybrid system where TiN was deposited by AIP method, while Si was incorporated with sputtering technique. During the deposition, the substrate bias voltages were varied from 0V to 300V at various temperatures of 200°C, 250°C, and 300°C. The micro-hardness and wear properties were improved with increasing substrate bias voltage. This result can be explained that the higher ion bombardment energy cause to change of microstructure of Ti-Si-N coating layers to a denser one with smaller grains compared to lower ion bombardment. The micro-hardness of Ti-Si-N coating layers was varied with different deposition temperature. In addition, the tribological behavior of Ti-Si-N coating layers were investigated with the ball-on-disc test under a normal load of 1N against a steel ball as counterpart material at an ambient temperature of 25°C.
FP-1-22 Characteristics of MgO Thin Films Prepared Using Broad Beam Ion Irradiation
N. Yasui, A. Ide-Ektessabi, H. Nomura (Kyoto University, Japan)
There has been an increasing demand for large-area surface modification techniques. A linear ion source is one of the most promising tools for that due to its high capability of broad ion beam irradiation. In this article the ion energy profile of the linear ion source was measured and the ion irradiation were applied to the surface modification of MgO thin films. The chemical state and crystallinigy of the MgO films were performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The secondary electron emission coefficient of the MgO films was also measured.
FP-1-23 Ion Beam Processing of MgO Thin Films
H. Nomura, N. Yasui, A. Ide-Ektessabi (Kyoto University, Japan)
Thin film of MgO is widely used as a protecting layer of plasma display panel (PDP). We prepared the MgO thin films using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) technique with the aim of controlling the crystal orientation of the films. Oxygen ion beam was utilized to irradiate the growing films. The ion beam irradiation was performed by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) type ion source. The flux of evaporated MgO was produced using an electron gun. Energy and current density of the ion beam as well as deposition rate were taken as the parameters to control the deposition. Composition and crystallinity of the films were measured using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In this study, we discuss the effects of simultaneous irradiation of the films by oxygen ion beam during film growth. Experimental results suggest that the ion beam irradiation during film growth strongly influences the crystal properties of the films to have the best orientation for high efficiency secondary electron emission. The secondary electron emission coefficient of MgO thin films were also measured and discussed in light of their crystallinity.
FP-1-24 Characteristics of Ti-Doped MgO Thin Films
A. Ide-Ektessabi, S. Murakami, H. Nomura, N. Yasui (Kyoto University, Japan)
In order to improve secondary electron emission coefficient of a protective layer in a plasma display panel, Ti-doped MgO films were fabricated using electron beam evaporation. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were performed to measure the chemical state and the composition of the Ti-doped MgO films. Secondary electron emission coefficient of these films was also measured.
FP-1-25 Characteristics of Tantalum Oxide Thin Films Prepared Using Electron Beam Evaporation
A. Ide-Ektessabi, H. Uehara, H. Nomura (Kyoto University, Japan)
Tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) is one of the most promising materials for thin film capacitors with high dielectric constant. In this article tantalum oxide thin films were prepared using electron beam evaporation with varying substrate temperature and oxygen flow rate. The composition and the depth profile were measured using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Electrical measurement of the Tantalum oxide films was also performed.
FP-1-26 Mechanical Properties and Adhesion Performance of Sol-Gel Hybrid Coatings on Coper, Aluminium and Titanium
B.A. Latella (Australian Nucelar Science and Technology Organization, Australia); M. Ignat (CNRS, ENSEEG, France); C.J. Barbé, D.J. Cassidy (Australian Nucelar Science and Technology Organization, Australia)
Thin film coatings based on organically modified silanes were synthesized using sol-gel technology. Various mixtures of tetraethoxysilane and glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane precursors were used to produce sol-gel coatings on as-received and thermally oxidised copper, aluminium and titanium substrates. The mechanical properties and adhesion behaviour of the coatings were assessed using nano-indentation and simultaneous in situ micromechanical testing/optical microscopy. The relationship between the film structure and its mechanical response is discussed. It is shown that the mechanical properties (hardness and Young’s modulus) of the coatings is influenced by the level of organic substituent in the films and the presence of an oxide layer thermally grown on the substrate material prior to deposition plays an important role on the film/substrate adhesion behaviour.
Time Period MoP Sessions | Topic F Sessions | Time Periods | Topics | ICMCTF2003 Schedule