AVS2015 Session 2D+MN+NS+SP+SS+TF-WeM: Mechanical and Thermal Properties of 2D Materials
Wednesday, October 21, 2015 8:00 AM in 212C
2D+MN+NS+SP+SS+TF-WeM-1 Mechanical Properties of Polycrystalline Graphene
Joseph Gonzales (University of South Florida); Romain Perriot (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Ivan Oleynik (University of South Florida)
Experimental investigation of mechanical properties indicates that the polycrystalline graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition is as strong as pristine. The microscopic characterization of graphene samples using Atomic Force microscopy (AFM) nano-indentation is limited in the sense that the detailed mechanical characteristics such as stress and stain distributions under the indenter, elastic moduli and breaking strength are not available directly from experiment. Using accurate description of interatomic interactions provided by novel screened environment-dependent bond order, (SED-REBO) potential, we performed large-scale molecular dynamics investigations of mechanical properties of polycrystalline graphene under conditions mimicking nano-indentation AFM experiments. The atomically resolved characterization of the stress and strain distributions under indenter are used to understand detailed mechanisms of graphene strength and failure. The breaking strength, the crack initiation and propagation are investigated as a function of the grain boundary structure and the grain size distribution as well as the position of the indenter – at the center of the grain, at the a single grain boundary and at the junction of three or more grain boundaries.
2D+MN+NS+SP+SS+TF-WeM-3 Lévy Flights Found in Freestanding Graphene
Paul Thibado (University of Arkansas); Mehdi Neek-Amal, Francois Peeters (University of Antwerp, Belgium)
Local, long-time evolution measurements of the height fluctuations of a 2D membrane allows examination of the fundamental foundations of statistical mechanics in soft condensed matter. However, such measurements have proved elusive, thereby forcing critical theoretical assumptions in the best models. We report sub-nanometer, high-bandwidth height measurements of freestanding graphene using constant-current, point-mode scanning tunneling microscopy, as a follow-up to our previous related works [1-2]. By tracking atoms directly, the ability to measure dynamic events is increased by a factor of 1000 over the present state-of-the-art membrane imaging technology. Surprisingly, the membrane velocities follow the Cauchy-Lorentz distribution consistent with a Lévy process, rather than the expected Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. We introduce a new theoretical approach using fractional-stochastic calculus.
This work was supported in part by Office of Naval Research (USA) under Grant No. N00014-10-1-0181 and National Science Foundation (USA) under Grant No. DMR- 0855358.
 P. Xu, M. Neek-Amal, S.D. Barber, J.K. Schoelz, M.L. Ackerman, P.M. Thibado, A. Sadeghi, and F.M. Peeters, Nature Comm. 5, 3720 (2014).
 M. Neek-Amal, P. Xu, J.K. Schoelz, M.L. Ackerman, S.D. Barber, P.M. Thibado, A. Sadeghi, and F.M. Peeters, Nature Comm. 5, 4962 (2014).
2D+MN+NS+SP+SS+TF-WeM-4 Multilayer Graphene Strength Characterization
Joseph Rowley, Nathan Boyer, Kendall Berry, Robert Davis (Brigham Young University); Richard Creighton, Jonathan Abbott, Sterling Cornaby, Mallorie Harker (Moxtek Inc.); Richard Vanfleet (Brigham Young University)
Although there are many examples in the literature of multilayer graphene fabrication and electrical characterization, there is a lack of data on the mechanical properties of multilayer graphene, especially many layer. Conversely there is data about the mechanical properties of single layer graphene, and limited information about bilayer and few layer, but little about many layer. Multilayer Graphene was fabricated using chemical vapor deposition on a Nickel catalyst. Different flow rates and cooling rates were investigated to produce many layer films. Due to the high strength in graphene, these films were able to be suspended over millimeter size openings and have a differential pressure applied. This allowed for the characterization of the strength of these membranes using bulge testing.
2D+MN+NS+SP+SS+TF-WeM-5 Nanoelectromechanical Systems Based on 2D Materials beyond Graphene -- Effects from Geometry, Nonlinearity, and Anisotropy
Zenghui Wang (Case Western Reserve University)
Investigating and manipulating the mechanical degree of freedom in two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures present unique challenges and opportunities: such effort demands advanced fabrication and measurement schemes, and offers new insight into the physical properties of 2D materials. I will present our explorations and findings in mechanical processes at the nanoscale, through studying resonant nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) based on 2D materials beyond graphene (e.g., molybdenum disulfide, black phosphorus, etc.). I will discuss the implications of geometrical irregularities on the nanomechanical responses of 2D-material-based resonators; impacts of device and material parameters on the mechanical nonlinearity and motional noise in 2D resonant transducers; and effects of material anisotropy in nanomechanical resonators based on new types of highly anisotropic 2D materials. These findings open new pathways towards nanomechanical coupling and tuning of the physical properties in 2D nanomaterials, and offer opportunities for building novel devices with new multimode functions.
|10:00 AM||BREAK - Complimentary Coffee in Exhibit Hall|
2D+MN+NS+SP+SS+TF-WeM-10 Phonon Spectroscopy of Graphene Field Effect Devices with the STM
Fabian Natterer, Yue Zhao, Jonathan Wyrick (NIST/CNST); Wen Ruan, Yang-Hao Chan, Mei-Yin Chou (Georgia Institute of Technology); Nikolai Zhitenev, Joseph Stroscio (NIST/CNST)
Phonon spectroscopy of graphene by inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy with the STM has been elusive in previous measurements [1–3]. The difficulty lies within the weak phonon signatures that are buried by other dominant spectral features that inhibit a clear distinction between phonons and miscellaneous excitations. Utilizing a back gated graphene device that permits continuous adjustment of the global charge carrier density, we employ an averaging method where individual tunneling spectra at varying charge carrier density are condensed into one representative spectrum . This method improves the signal for inelastic transitions that appear at constant threshold, while it broadens and thereby suppresses dispersive spectral features. We use this method to demonstrate the mapping of the total graphene phonon density of states, in good agreement with density functional calculations. Using the knowledge about the phonons thusly obtained, we closely examine our gate resolved spectra and observe a surprising and abrupt change in the phonon intensity when the graphene charge carrier type is switched through a variation of the back gate electrode potential. This sudden variation in phonon intensity is asymmetric in carrier type, depending on the sign of the tunneling bias. We invoke a resonance mediated tunneling process that relies on the presence of tip-induced quasi-bound state resonances in graphene, resembling whispering gallery modes for electrons and holes . Our tip-sample system thereby mimics a giant molecular state and shares analogies with resonant enhanced excitations of molecular vibrational or rotational modes [6–9].
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2D+MN+NS+SP+SS+TF-WeM-11 Edge-state-induced Stabilization of Dopants in Graphene
Yuuki Uchida, Akira Akaishi, Jun Nakamura (The University of Electro-Communications (UEC-Tokyo) and JST CREST, Japan)
Impurity doping is an efficient way to modify electronic properties of graphene. Several groups have reported the stability of dopants in graphene, especially near edges of graphene: Impurity atoms prefer to locate at the zigzag edge of graphene rather than the armchair one. It has also been reported that the electronic properties are strongly dependent upon the location of dopants, which is derrived from the non-equivalence of the two sublattice. It is well-known that the edge-localized state emerges at the zigzag edge, which is specific for the so-called bipartite lattice. However, it has not been clarified yet how the edge-state affects the dopant stability depending on the sublattice. In this study, we investigate the role of the sublattice-dependent edge-state on the stabilization of impurities. We evaluate the dependence of the structural stability on the distance of impurity atoms from the zigzag edge using first-principles calculations within the density-functional theory. We have employed two types of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with the armchair- (AGNR) or the zigzag- (ZGNR) edge.
For AGNR, the formation energy of dopants does not change neither systematically nor monotonically as a function of the distance from the edge. On the other hand, for ZGNR, the formation energy is lower than that for AGNR and decreases with decreasing distance from the edge. In addition, two types of tendencies are confirmed for odd- and even-numbered sites from the zigzag edge, corresponding to the different sublattices of the bipartite lattice.
Such peculiar behavior as for of the formation energy can be explained as follows : The doped N atom donates its electron to the unoccupied-edge-state just above the Fermi level, resulting in the lowering of the one-electron energy of this state. The smaller the distance of N atoms from the zigzag edge is, the larger the electrostatic attraction between electrons of edge-localized states and positively-charged ion-shell at the N site becomes. Further, N atoms are much more stabilized at the odd-numbered site, because the edge-state has finite amplitude only at the odd-numbered sites.
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2D+MN+NS+SP+SS+TF-WeM-12 Exploring the Thermal Stability of Two-Dimensional Black Phosphorus
Xiaolong Liu, Joshua Wood, Kan-Sheng Chen, EunKyung Cho, Mark Hersam (Northwestern University)
Two dimensional (2D) black phosphorus (BP) has attracted significant attention due to its superlative electronic and optical properties. Unlike graphene, its intrinsic and thickness-dependent band gap makes it feasible for direct application in electronic and optoelectronic devices.1 However, before 2D BP can be effectively employed in such applications, it is necessary to establish the thermal stability of 2D BP since annealing is a key element in most device fabrication processes. Towards this end, we have utilized in situ scanning/transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy methods to characterize the thermal decomposition process of mechanically exfoliated 2D BP.2 The decomposition is observed to occur at ~400 °C in the form of sublimation, compared to the 550 °C of bulk BP. This decomposition initiates via eye-shaped cracks along the  direction and then continues until only a thin, amorphous red phosphorous-like skeleton remains. In situ electron energy loss spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and energy-loss near-edge structure changes provide further quantitative insight into this chemical transformation process.
(1) Qiao, J.; Kong, X.; Hu, Z.-X.; Yang, F.; Ji, W. Nature Comm.2014, 5, 4475.
(2) Liu, X.; Wood, J. D.; Chen, K.-S.; Cho, E.; Hersam M. C. J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2015, 6, 773-778.
2D+MN+NS+SP+SS+TF-WeM-13 Gas Permeation Through 1 nm Thick Carbon Nanomembranes
André Beyer, Min Ai (Bielefeld University, Germany); Sergey Shishatskiy, Jan Wind (Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany); Xianghui Zhang, Vahe Chinaryan, Yang Yang, Armin Gölzhäuser (Bielefeld University, Germany)
The gas permeation characteristics of 1 nm thick carbon nanomembranes (CNMs) from self-assembled monolayers are reported. The assembly of CNMs onto polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) support membranes allows determination of gas permeation characteristics. Single layer and triple layer CNMs were investigated in respect to permeation of hydrogen, helium, carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, argon, methane and ethane. In addition, the CNM-PDMS composites were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, helium-ion microscopy as well as atomic force microscopy. A careful analysis about the contribution of the PDMS support membranes to the gas permeation allowed an estimate of the intrinsic CNM permeances. These values indicate a molecular sieve-like property of CNMs which is attributed to molecular-sized channels in CNMs. As an example, hydrogen and carbon dioxide gas molecules display an order of magnitude higher permeance values for single layer CNMs in comparison to oxygen and nitrogen, which possess larger kinetic diameters.