ICMCTF2005 Session D2-1: Special Forum World Market Perspective of Diamond and Diamond-Like Carbon

Thursday, May 5, 2005 8:30 AM in Room Royal Palm 1-3

Thursday Morning

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8:30 AM D2-1-1 Industrial Applications of Diamond, Nanotubes and Amorphous Carbon Films: Selected Options and Future Outlook
P.K. Bachmann, Z. Chen, V. van Elsbergen, H. Nikol, C. Ribbing, D.U. Wiechert (Philips Research Laboratories, Germany)

This paper reviews the present state-of-the-art of the chemical vapour deposition processes utilized for industrialization of diamond films, carbon nanotubes and amorphous carbon films. The broad spectrum of materials and processes will allow only to cover selected examples that have a proven potential of industrialization. Moreover we will provide an overview of the current status of research, development and fabrication of products that are based on these carbon modifications.

Examples ranging from tools to biosensors and other medical products to diffusion barrier coatings and field emission devices will be covered. The authors will compare the state-of-the-art with competing technologies, materials and products and provide their view of the future of the materials and application areas.

9:10 AM D2-1-3 Diamond-Like Carbon Films for PET Bottles and Medical Applications
A. Shirakura (Kirin Brewery Co., Ltd., Japan); Y.K. Koga (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan); H. Kodama, T. Hasebe, T. Suzuki (Keio University School of Science and Technology, Japan)
The unique properties of diamond like carbon (DLC) film, including chemical inertness and barrier property against molecules, make it possible for new applications in food, beverage and medical market segments. Although these fields involve relatively high risk for customers, the expected great advantages of DLC film application have driven the extensive efforts. In this paper, we present our recent results of development in high gas barrier polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles for beverage use. We also demonstrate that DLC or fluorinated DLC is a promising candidate coating material for orthopedics implants and blood contacting devices, such as artificial joints, cardiovascular interventional devices, artificial organs and pacemakers. A unique technique of plasma CVD method has been applied to deposit DLC film on the inner surface of PET bottles. The DLC coated PET bottle exhibits extremely high gas barrier properties against oxygen, carbon dioxide and flavors compared to conventional bottles. For the practical use of PET bottles as commodity, high speed and low cost coating are essential and lately our newly developed high speed coating machine has been successfully operated for commercial production of hot tea drink bottles.
9:50 AM D2-1-5 Status and Trends of Commercially Available CVD Diamond and Diamond-Like Carbon Materials, A North American Perspective
B.L. Cline, H.S. Cline (Cline Innovations, LLC)
This paper summarizes the current commercial status of vapor deposited diamond and diamond-like carbon materials. The discussion includes freestanding (bulk) CVD diamond materials, thin film CVD diamond coatings, and thin film diamond-like carbon (DLC, ta-C) coatings used in a wide range of commercial applications. Recent developments in single-crystal CVD diamond growth are also highlighted. Efforts are made to compare and contrast the unique attributes of each material type. Special consideration is given to applications where DLC products and CVD diamond products compete or effectively complement each other. This technical perspective is focused geographically on North America and is partially based on interviews with diamond materials suppliers, product integrators, and end users of products containing these unique materials.
10:30 AM D2-1-7 DLC to Meet Industrial Demand: Reality and Challenge
X. Shi, L.K. Cheah (Nanofilm Technologies International Pte Ltd., Singapore)

In the early 90s, we saw the emerging of several new vacuum coating technologies for diamond like carbon (DLC) thin film manufacturing. These included physical vapor deposition and chemical vapor deposition and their modifications. Although DLC coated products have reached commercialization in some segments, the growth rate for the past decade was slower than expected in many application areas. Currently, only handful of established applications such as trimming and forming tools for semiconductor industry, special cutting tools, consumer products for example shaving blades and automotive components are successfully implemented. For huge amount of work being carried out throughout the world on promoting the DLC coating, the success rates need to be increased. In the 1996 BCC study, they had projected a higher market and growth rate for DLC related products, however, in year 2001, they observed substantial reduction in this segment. This is because some market leaders moved out from this segment and the number of companies that involved in DLC coating manufacturing had gone down by 80%. Since the discovery of DLC coating, it is always the perception of the end user that the DLC coating can deliver the diamond’s mechanical properties and extremely low friction. However, the mechanical properties of the DLC coating that claimed to be similar with diamond is much lower than expected. The hardness in most of the cases is lower than the competitors such as TiN, TiAlN and TiCN and more brittle. The advantages so far for the DLC coating are slippery (low friction) and non-sticky to metal and hence limiting the potential growth of DLC market. To address this, researches try to find various ways to improve the hardness and the resiliency of the coating.

Following the cathodic arc deposition, CAD method, a new carbon based coating production-manufacturing method, Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc, FCVA, has been developed. FCVA technology is able to produce the unique film, tetrahedral amorphous carbon, ta-C film that cannot be easily produced by other methods. FCVA technology is a major breakthrough for the coating industry as this technology allows the deposition of ta-C films that is harder, smoother, more durable and contamination-free, making it an ideal replacement alternative to conventional DLC film produced by the PVD and CVD coating methods in many areas. With more than one decade of research and development, NTI are able to produce resilient ta-C film without compromising to the hardness of the film. This FCVA technology is an enabling technology for many new promising coating applications besides direct replacement of DLC coating as it is able to meet the increasingly stringent technical specifications of certain coating applications.

In the presentation, the FCVA technology will be benchmarked against several DLC coating technologies. The properties such as diamond content, scratch resistance, wear rate and hardness will be presented and benchmarked against CVD DLC. We will showcase the performance of the coating on the stamping and forming tool, end mill, PCB micro drill and router. The coating performance such as the life span of the tool and the dimension control of the board for the PCB micro drill and router will be addressed. The market situation of ta-C coating in Greater China, South East Asia and Japan will be reviewed.

11:10 AM D2-1-9 Industrial Applications and the Outlook of Market of DLC Coatings
Y. Jun (J&L Tech Co., Ltd., Korea)
Since the first introduction to Korean industry in mid 1980's, DLC coating has been considered as a strong candidate for high performance tools, dies and various mechanical and optical components in infrared range. In this paper, we reviewed the DLC coating market in Korea along with the various techniques for DLC coatings, because both of characteristics and the cost of DLC coating depend strongly on the used coating technology. A number of application cases will be discussed to reveal the relevant issues in both coating technology and economical view points. DLC coated VCR head drum, DLC coated spacer tools for e-gun and DLC coated end-mill would be a part of the cases. Finally, we will also outlook the potential market of DLC coating and address the problems to be overcome to realize the potential market.
Time Period ThM Sessions | Abstract Timeline | Topic D Sessions | Time Periods | Topics | ICMCTF2005 Schedule