AVS2014 Session EN+AS+EM-WeA: Organic-Inorganic Interfaces for Energy

Wednesday, November 12, 2014 2:20 PM in Room 315

Wednesday Afternoon

Time Period WeA Sessions | Abstract Timeline | Topic EN Sessions | Time Periods | Topics | AVS2014 Schedule

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2:20 PM EN+AS+EM-WeA-1 Towards Efficient Solution Processed Organic Photovoltaic Devices
Elsa Reichmanis (Georgia Institute of Technology)

Solution-processed π–conjugated semiconductors exhibit potential in the development of low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible plastic optoelectronics, particularly photovoltaics (OPVs). However, one drawback to current OPVs is their limited efficiency. We have explored the use of donor-acceptor (D-A) hybridization to tailor HOMO/LUMO energy levels and thus the band gap. Materials exhibiting high charge carrier mobility and strong low-energy absorption profiles have been synthesized and characterized. Coupled with materials structure, the performance of devices fabricated using polymeric semiconductors depends critically upon alignment of the polymer chains at the nano- through meso- and macro-scales. Significant structure-process-property relationships that allow for enhancement of long-range order will be discussed. For instance, a lyotropic liquid crystalline (LC) phase has been observed in poly-(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) via solvent-evaporation induced self-assembly. The lessons learned through these studies may allow for simple, controllable, and cost-effective methodologies for achieving high performance flexible plastic electronic devices.

3:00 PM EN+AS+EM-WeA-3 Understanding Carrier Dynamics in Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 Using Time-Resolved Terahertz Spectroscopy
Glenn Guglietta (Drexel University); Kaushik Roy Choudhury, Jonathan Caspar (DuPont Central Research and Development); Jason Baxter (Drexel University)

We have used time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TRTS) to measure lifetimes and determine recombination mechanisms in Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) thin films fabricated from nanocrystal inks. TRTS probes photoconductivity on femtosecond to nanosecond time scales that are relevant for recombination in thin film photovoltaics. Terahertz frequencies (0.2-2.5 THz) correspond to typical scattering rates in semiconductors, enabling determination of carrier density and mobility. Ultrafast time resolution permits tracking the evolution of carrier density to determine recombination mechanisms. By manipulating the photoexcitation wavelength and fluence, we can tailor the generation profile of photoexcited carriers to distinguish between surface, Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH), and Auger recombination mechanisms and determine rate constants.

TRTS experiments and modeling were used to understand the role of recombination mechanisms and their contribution to CZTSSe photovoltaic performance. TRTS photoconductivity shows an instrument-limited onset within 1 ps of an ultrafast pump pulse, followed by a slow decay over nanoseconds. Photoconductivity decay kinetics were fit with a bi-exponential model with two time constants and a weight fraction. The short time constant is typically ~200 ps and roughly corresponds to diffusion to and recombination at the surface. The long time constant is typically ~2 ns and is attributed to SRH recombination. Assignment of these mechanisms is supported by the dependence of kinetics upon excitation fluence and wavelength. Normalized kinetics are independent of fluence over a range of 40x, indicating that no Auger recombination is occurring. Without Auger recombination, we can distinguish between surface and SRH rates by tuning the pump wavelength. As the excitation wavelength is shifted towards the blue, carriers are generated nearer to the front surface and the photoconductivity kinetics are sensitive to the surface recombination velocity. With blue excitation, we see that a larger fraction, ~0.5, of carriers recombine with a short time constant. With redder excitation wavelengths, the carriers are generated more evenly throughout the film and the kinetics are dominated by SRH recombination with the long time constant having a majority of the weight fraction, ~0.8. TRTS provides a pathway to determine performance-limiting recombination mechanisms and measure key parameters like SRH lifetime and surface recombination velocity, helping to direct the design of efficient thin film photovoltaics.

3:20 PM EN+AS+EM-WeA-4 Comparative Study of the Doping Effects of Titanium and Nitrogen into Tungsten Oxide (WO3) Thin Films for Photovoltaic Device Applications
Mirella Vargas, Chintalapalle Ramana (The University of Texas at El Paso)

Tungsten oxide (WO3) is a technologically important n-type semi-conductor that is extensively studied in the fields of electronic and opto-electronic devices. Due to its unique properties such as a high work function and high-coloration efficiency, WO3 is attractive for electrochromic and memory devices including large area information displays, smart-windows, and optical heat-mirrors. Low-dimensional structures of WO3 coupled with an ideal band gap (Eg ~ 2.8 eV) have been employed as materials for the photocatalyst driven by visible light irradiation in dye-sensitized solar cells. In addition, WO3 has also become a strong contender to replace indium-doped tin oxide or ITO thin films in transparent electrode applications. The present work is focused on WO3 thin films characterized as promising transparent conducting oxide (TCO) materials by investigating doping effects on the structural, chemical, and optical properties. The incorporation of titanium (Ti) was achievable by depositing the films through co-sputtering of W and Ti metal targets. The sputtering powers to the W and Ti were kept constant at 100 W and 50 W, respectively, while varying the growth temperature (Ts) in the range of 25-500 oC. While all the samples are optically transparent, the structural quality of Ti-doped WO3 films is dependent on Ts. Ti-doped WO3 films grown at Ts<400 oC were amorphous. A temperature of 400 oC is critical to promote the structural order and formation of nanocrystalline films in the monoclinic phase. T he optical constants and their dispersion profiles determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry indicate that there is no significant inter-diffusion at the film-substrate interface for W-Ti oxide film growth of ~40 nm. The index refraction (n) at l=550 nm vary in the range of 2.15-2.40 with a gradual increase in growth temperature. Nitrogen (N2) incorporation was made through a post-deposition anneal in an ammonia environment on WO3 films. The un-doped WO3 films grown by variable growth temperature will be annealed at high temperatures for various rates to accommodate a strong N2 incorporation. The tungsten oxynitride films will be characterized by various analytical techniques to compare the doping effects of Ti and N2 on the structural, electronic, and optical properties of WO3 thin films.

5:00 PM EN+AS+EM-WeA-9 Engineering Exciton Recombination in Organic Light-Emitting Devices
Russell Holmes (University of Minnesota)

While capable of realizing very high peak efficiency, many organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) suffer a significant reduction in efficiency under large injected current densities. This efficiency roll-off can limit device brightness and potentially compromise operational stability. Much previous work has identified the key contributing factors to the efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent OLEDs as triplet-triplet annihilation and triplet-polaron quenching. Here, the parameters associated with these quenching processes are independently measured, and the impact of the exciton recombination zone width on the quenching processes in various OLED architectures is examined directly. In high efficiency devices employing a graded-emissive layer (G-EML) architecture the roll-off is due to both triplet-triplet annihilation and triplet-polaron quenching, while in devices which employ a double-emissive layer (D-EML) architecture, the roll-off is dominated by triplet-triplet annihilation. Overall, the roll-off in G-EML devices is found to be much less severe than in the D-EML device. This result is well accounted for by the larger exciton recombination zone that is experimentally measured in G-EML devices, serving to reduce exciton density-driven loss pathways. Indeed, a predictive model of the device efficiency based on the quantitatively measured quenching parameters shows the role a large exciton recombination zone plays in mitigating the roll-off.

5:40 PM EN+AS+EM-WeA-11 Interface Engineering to Control Magnetic Field Effects of Organic-based Devices by using a Self-Assembled Monolayer
Hyuk-Jae Jang (NIST & WFU); Sujitra Pookpanratana (NIST); Alyssa Brigeman (Wake Forest University); R.Joseph Kline (NIST); James Basham (NIST & PSU); David Gundlach, Christina Hacker, Oleg Kirillova (NIST); Oana Jurchescu (Wake Forest University); Curt.A. Richter (NIST)

Magnetic field effects (MFEs) in non-magnetic organic semiconductors provide a non-contact approach to control electronic and optoelectronic properties of organic-based devices by using a sub-tesla magnetic field and thus they have been of great interest to industry as well as academia around the world.1,2 However, there is no consensus on the physical mechanism(s) causing the MFEs in organic semiconductors even though a variety of fundamental models have been proposed to explain the effects.2 Studies on many different organic semiconductors and organic-based structures have shown that the magnitude and even the sign of the MFEs can vary by changing the measurement and fabrication conditions such as bias voltage, film thickness, and temperature. Therefore, it is suggested that there can be multiple origins inducing the MFEs and the outcome may result from a competition between different MFE mechanisms.2

In this presentation, we report a novel method of manipulating the MFEs on electrical resistance of organic semiconductors, namely organic magnetoresistance in Alq3 (tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum) – based devices by simply adding a molecular self-assembled monolayer (SAM) between a metal electrode and an organic semiconductor. SAMs have been known for their versatile use in various technological applications.3 Particularly, SAMs can alter the physical property of an inorganic solid surface and thus modify the interface between an electrode and an organic thin film when a SAM is inserted between them.3 We show for the first time that the interfacial modification by simply inserting a fluorinated SAM ( heptadecafluoro-1-decanethiol [CF3(CF2)7(CH2)2SH] or F-SAM) in organic-based devices changes the sign of organic magnetoresistance due to the change in relative strength of different MFE mechanisms coexisting in organic-based devices. In addition, we utilize different MFE mechanisms coexisting in organic-based devices by adding a thin TPD (N,N′-Bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-diphenylbenzidine) layer to create a system whose organic magnetoresistance can be tuned by an external bias voltage.


1. J. Kalinowski, M. Cocchi, D. Virgili, P. Di Marco, and V. Fattori, Chem. Phys. Lett. vol. 380, pp. 710-715, 2003.

2. W. Wagemans, P. Janssen, A. J. Schellekens, F. L. Bloom, P. A. Bobbert, and B. Koopmans, SPIN vol. 1, pp. 93-108, 2011.

3. J. C. Love, L. A. Estroff, J. K. Kriebel, R. G. Nuzzo, and G. M. Whitesides, Chem. Rev. vol. 105, pp. 1103-1169, 2005.
Time Period WeA Sessions | Abstract Timeline | Topic EN Sessions | Time Periods | Topics | AVS2014 Schedule