AVS2014 Session EL+AS+EM+MC+SS-ThA: Optical Characterization of Nanostructures and Metamaterials
Thursday, November 13, 2014 2:20 PM in Room 304
EL+AS+EM+MC+SS-ThA-1 The Optical Properties of Metallic Nanostructures
Bruno Gompf (Universität Stuttgart, Germany)
The entire optical response of a homogenous reciprocal sample can be characterized by eight basic physical properties: mean absorption, mean refraction, circular birefringence and circular dichroism, linear birefringence and linear dichroism (0°, 90°), linear birefringence and linear dichroism (-+45°). Always two out of the three main birefringence-dichroism pairs (basic anisotropies) are sufficient to jump from any point of the Poincare-sphere to any other. A common example is the Soleil-Babinet compensator. This implies that always two of the basic anisotropies generate artificial signals of the third . Therefore even for perfect crystals it is hard to judge, what optical property lead to an observed polarization change.
In the case of inhomogeneous materials the permittivity additionally becomes k-dependent εij(ω, k); it exhibits spatial dispersion. For most artificial nanostructures, dubbed metamaterials, the building blocks are in the range l/10 < P < l/2. During the last couple of years it has become clear that in general it is not possible for these kinds of materials to define effective optical parameters, which are independent of the angle of incidence of the probing light. There optical response is intrinsically k-dependent.
With Mueller-matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry the entire optical response of artificial nanostructures can be characterized. For this the Mueller-matrix elements mij(θ, α, ω), which depends on the angle of incidence q, the azimuth orientation a and the energy, had to be measured over the complete angular and a wide frequency range. Visualizing the results in polar contour plots enables a detailed analysis of how nanostructures influence the polarization state of light [2-4]. Most importantly, immediate experimental evidence is obtained for deviations from pure dielectric behaviour; i.e. the optical response cannot be explained by an effective εi,j(ω) alone but requires spatial dispersion.
In the talk the entire optical response of a some artificial nanostructures will be presented and some generalizations will be discussed, when spatial dispersion becomes important and how it can be distinguished from other optical properties leading to a mixing of polarization states, like birefringence and optical activity.
 J.Schellman and H.P.Jensen, Chem. Rev., 87, 1359 (1987.))
 B. Gompf, J. Braun, T. Weiss, H. Giessen, M. Dressel, U. Huebner, Phys.Rev.Lett. 106,
 B.Gompf, B. Krausz, B. Frank, M. Dressel, Phys.Rev.B. 86, 075462 (2012). A. Berrier, B. Gompf, Liwei Fu, T. Weiss, H. Schweizer, Phys.Rev.B. in print
EL+AS+EM+MC+SS-ThA-3 Mueller Matrix Ellipsometry As a Powerful Tool for Nanoimprinted Grating Structure Metrology
Xiuguo Chen, Chuanwei Zhang, Shiyuan Liu (Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China)
Compared with conventional ellipsometric scatterometry, which only obtains two ellipsometric angles, Mueller matrix ellipsometry (MME, sometimes also referred to as Mueller matrix polarimetry) based scatterometry can provide up to 16 quantities of a 4 by 4 Mueller matrix in each measurement. Consequently, MME can acquire much more useful information about the sample and thereby can achieve better measurement sensitivity and accuracy. In this talk, we will demonstrate MME as a powerful tool for nanoimprinted grating structure metrology. We will show that MME-based scatterometry at least has the following three aspects of advantages over conventional ellispometric scatterometry.
(1) More accurate characterization of line width, line height, sidewall angle, and residual layer thickness of nanoimprinted grating structures can be achieved by performing MME measurements in the optimal configuration. In contrast, conventional ellipsometric scatterometry can only be conducted in the planar diffraction configuration, i.e., with the plane of incidence perpendicular to grating lines, which is not necessarily the optimal measurement configuration for nanostructures in general.
(2) Not only further improvement in the measurement accuracy and fitting performance can be achieved, but also the residual layer thickness variation over the illumination spot can be directly determined by incorporating depolarization effects into the interpretation of measured data. The depolarization effects, which are demonstrated to be mainly induced by the finite bandwidth and numerical aperture (NA) of the instrument, as well as the residual layer thickness variation of the nanoimprinted grating structures, can be only handled by MME.
(3) Conventional ellipsometric scatterometry has difficulties measuring asymmetric grating structure due to the lack of capability of distinguishing the direction of profile asymmetry. In contrast, MME not only has good sensitivity to both the magnitude and direction of profile asymmetry, but also can be applied to accurately characterize asymmetric nanoimprinted gratings by fully exploiting the rich information hidden in the measured Mueller matrices.
EL+AS+EM+MC+SS-ThA-4 Vector Magneto-Optical Generalized Ellipsometry on Sculptured Thin Films with Forward Calculated Uniaxial Response Simulation
Chad Briley, Tino Hofmann (University of Nebraska-Lincoln); Daniel Schmidt (National University of Singapore); Eva Schubert, Mathias Schubert (University of Nebraska-Lincoln)
We present the vector magneto-optical generalized ellipsometric (VMOGE) response and forward calculated simulations of ferromagnetic slanted columnar thin films. Directional hysteresis magnetization scans were performed with an octu-pole vector magnet at room temperature on slanted columnar thin film samples of permalloy grown by glancing angle deposition passivated by an atomic layer deposited Al2O3 conformal coating. Model analyses of the measured Mueller matrix ellipsometric data through a point-by-point best match model process determines the magneto-optical (MO) dielectric tensor. Three dimensional rendering of the anti-symmetric off-diagonal elements of the MO dielectric tensor reveal a uniaxial magnetic response of the thin film along the long axis of the columns. The magnetic response was subsequently modelled by a best match model process with uniaxial hysteretic response governed by the shape induced anisotropy from the physical geometry and orientation of the nano-columns. By using model parameters for normalized saturation ||Ms||=1, coercivity ||Hc||=50 mT, and remenance ||Mr||=0.9999*||Ms|| the forward calculated magnetic simulations described the observed magneto-optical response for all measured orientations of the nano-columns with respect to all magnetizing field directions generated by the vector magnet.
1) D. Schmidt, C. Briley, E. Schubert, and M. Schubert Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 123109 (2013)
EL+AS+EM+MC+SS-ThA-6 In Situ Generalized Ellipsometry Characterization of Silicon Nanostructures during Lithium-ion Intercalation
Derek Sekora, Rebecca Lai, Tino Hofmann, Mathias Schubert, Eva Schubert (University of Nebraska-Lincoln)
Nanostructured silicon has emerged as a leading candidate for improved lithium-ion battery electrode design. The combined highly accessible surface area and nanoscale spacing for volumetric lattice expansion of nanostructured thin films have shown improved cycle lifetime over bulk-like silicon films. Additionally, ultra-thin passivation layers have been reported to increase the longevity and stability of silicon thin film electrodes. Very little in-situ information has been reported on silicon films during the complicated lithiation process. Furthermore, what information available has been limited to the study of bulk-like thin films. The advantageous geometry of glancing angle deposited (GLAD) thin films allows for the strain from lithiation to affect individual nanostructures in comparison to the bulk response. For this reason, alumina passivated GLAD silicon films were grown for use as working electrodes in half cell electrochemical experiments.
The spatially coherent silicon GLAD nanostructures have intrinsic biaxial optical properties. Therefore, generalized ellipsometry was employed to investigate the silicon film's physical response to lithium intercalation during an electrochemical cyclic voltammagram cycled against pure lithium metal in a conductive anhydrous electrolyte solution. In-situ ellipsometric monitoring of directional optical constant changes determined by the homogeneous biaxial layer approach are presented. The optical response expresses a morphologic conversion from a highly anisotropic film to a pseudo-isotropic lithium concentrated form and subsequently, its return to the original anisotropic state. The ability to nondestructively monitor complex nanostructured thin films during lithium-ion processes provides new avenues for high storage battery electrode design.
EL+AS+EM+MC+SS-ThA-7 Characterization of SiO2 Nanoparticle Layers on a Glass Substrate by Spectroscopic Imaging Ellipsometry and AFM
Peter H. Thiesen (Accurion GmbH, Germany); Greg Hearn (Accurion Inc.); Christian Röling (Accurion GmbH, Germany)
The well-directed organization of nanoparticles is of increasing technical and scientific interest. One approach is the organization of nanoparticles at the air/water interface for applications, like producing 2D colloidal crystals or nanowires. For example, Gil et al. (2007) monitored the formation of 2D colloidal crystals by Langmuir–Blodgett technique. They used Brewster angle microscopy to observe the film quality. Zang et al. (2009) have also studied silica nanoparticle layers at the air/water interface by multiple angle of incidence ellipsometry. For data interpretation, a two-layer model was introduced. With this model, the radius of interfacial aggregates and the contact angle of the nanoparticle surface at the air/water interface were obtained.
In this paper d ifferent line shaped pattern of SiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by spectroscopic imaging ellipsometry in the wavelength range between 360 and 1000 nm and by AFM. The samples were provided by the research group of Professor Y. Mori, Doshisha University, Japan.
The work shows the unique capability of imaging ellipsometry in characterizing patterned surfaces. We started with a pre inspection of the surface by imaging ellipsometric contrast microscopy. Tiny regions of interest (ROIs) were placed on interesting areas like on different steps of the stripes and Delta and Psi spectra were recorded. The next step in characterization was the mapping of Delta and Psi with pixel resolution of the detector. The same samples were also characterized with an AFM. The results optical modelling are in good agreement with the results of the scanning method.
A. Gil, M. Vaupel, F. Guitiana, D. Möbius (2007) Journal of Materials Chemistry 17: 2434–2439.
D. Zang, A. Stocco, D. Langevin, B. Weib, B.P. Brinks (2009) Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.11: 9522–9529.
EL+AS+EM+MC+SS-ThA-8 Doped Chiral Polymers with Tunable Resonance Frequency
HyunJung Kim (National Institute of Aerospace); Cheol Park (NASA Langley Research Center); Godfrey Sauti, Sang-Hyon Chu (National Institute of Aerospace); Sharon Lowther (NASA Langley Research Center); JinHo Kang (National Institute of Aerospace); Keith Gordon, Robert Bryant (NASA Langley Research Center)
Metamaterials are a new class of materials with exotic electromagnetic properties not found in any naturally occurring material. Cu rrently, metamaterials are constructed from geometric features which are smaller than the wavelengths at which they exhibit exotic properties such as a negative index of refraction. Negative refraction indices are only obtained, in narrow wavelength ranges, with simultaneous negative permittivity and permeability through complex geometries [1,2]. These requirements prevent large-scale conformable component designs and restrict the wavelengths accessible for many potential applications.
Chiral materials offer an alternative route to obtaining metamaterials. Amplifying the chirality parameters while lowering the real part of the permittivity can present the optical properties of metamaterials without having a negative permeability or complex architecture . In this regard, we report the suppressed refractive indices (< 1.0) of doped chiral polymers at optical wavelengths without complex geometry. The doped chiral polymers in this study were developed for metamaterial applications by adding Ag or Au plasmonic tagging onto the chiral Poly (γ-benzyl-L-glutamate) (PBLG) films . The refractive indices of the isotropic/anisotropic films were determined in the accessed spectral range by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE). The refractive index of PBLG film with Ag inclusion decreased below 0.6 at around 360nm wavelength . Interaction of the chiral polymer chains and plasmonic particles was studied using dielectric spectroscopy in the frequency range of the polymer relaxations and the chiral/helical parameter was studied by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The suppressed refractive indices can be related to dipole-dipole exciton-plasmon coupling between the chiral polymer and individual nanoparticles. The fabrication of the doped chiral polymer films is also presented and discussed regarding the processing parameters and their effects on the optical properties.
 A. Baev, M. Samoc, P. N. Prasad, M. Krykunov, and J. Autschbach, Opt. Express 15, 5730-5741, 2007
 T. G. Mackay and A. Lakhtakia, SPIE Reviews, 1, 018003, 2009
 Cheol Park et al., US Patent Application Publication 20140017480 A1, “Doped chiral polymer metamaterials”
EL+AS+EM+MC+SS-ThA-9 Dielectric Tensor Model for Inter Landau-level Transitions in Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite and Epitaxial Graphene – Symmetry Properties, Energy Conservation and Plasma Coupling
Philipp Kühne (Linköping University, Sweden); Tino Hofmann, Mathias Schubert (University of Nebraska-Lincoln); Craig Herzinger (J.A. Woollam Co., Inc.); Vanya Darakchieva (Linköping University, Sweden)
We report on polarization sensitive, magneto-optic, reflection-type Landau level (LL) spectroscopy at low temperatures by using the integrated optical Hall effect instrument1 in the mid-infrared spectral range (600 – 4000 cm−1) on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and epitaxial graphene grown on C-face silicon carbide by thermal decomposition. In both sample systems we observe a multitude of inter-LL transitions. Inter-LL transitions in HOPG possess polarization mode mixing polarization selection rules characteristics, while polarization mode conserving and polarization mode mixing inter-LL transitions are observed in epitaxial graphene which can be assigned to single- and Bernal stacked (ABA) multi-layer graphene, respectively.2 We present a new dielectric tensor model for inter-LL transitions which explains all experimentally observed line-shapes. For inter-LL transitions in multi-layer graphene and HOPG we employ this new model together with energy conservation considerations, to show that these polarization mode mixing inter-LL transitions couple with a free charge carrier plasma. Finally, inter-LL transition energy parameters are determined and discussed.
1) P. Kühne, et. al., Rev. Sci. Instrum., accepted (2014)
2) P. Kühne, et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 077402 (2013)
EL+AS+EM+MC+SS-ThA-10 Characterization of Exfoliated 2D Nano Materials with Imaging Spectroscopic Ellipsometry
Peter H. Thiesen (Accurion GmbH, Germany); Greg Hearn (Accurion Inc.); Bastian Miller (Technische Universität München, Germany); Christian Röling (Accurion GmbH, Germany); Ulrich Wurstbauer (Columbia University); Eric Parzinger, AlexanderW. Holleitner, Ursula Wurstbauer (Technische Universität München, Germany)
In the initial period of graphene research, the issue was to identify and characterize crystallites of microscopic scale. Imaging ellipsometry is a nondestructive optical method in thin film metrology with a lateral resolution down to 1 µm. In a number of papers, Imaging ellipsometry has been applied to characterize graphene flakes of few micrometer size. Ellipsometric contrast micrographs, delta and Psi maps as well as wavelength spectra , and single layer steps in multilayer graphene/graphite stacks  have been reported.
Molybdenum disulfide is a layered transition metal dichalcogenide. From the point of current research, 2D-nano materials based on MoS2 are very promising because of the special semiconducting properties. The bulk material has an indirect 1.2 eV electronic bandgap, but single layer MoS2 has a direct 1.8 eV bandgap. The monolayer can be used in prospective electronic devices like transistors (MOSFETs) or photo detectors. Delta and Psi Spectra of MoS2 monolayers as well as maps of the ellipsometric angles will be presented. The practical aspect of single layer identification will be addressed and the capability of ellipsometric contrast micrographs as a fast tool for single layer identification will be demonstrated.
An additional focus will be on the modelling of the optical properties of 2D nanomaterials.
 Wurstbauer et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 231901 (2010)
 Matkovic et al. J. Appl. Phys. 112, 123523 (2012)
 Albrektsen O. J. OF Appl. Phys. 111, 064305 (2012)