2D Materials Characterization including Microscopy and Spectroscopy
Tuesday, November 11, 2014 2:20 PM in Room 310
2D+AS+HI+MC+NS+PS+SP+SS-TuA-1 Layer-Dependent Electronic and Physical Structure of 2D van der Waals Crystals
Richard Osgood (Columbia University)
Because of their weak Van der Waals interlayer bonding transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) semiconductors can be fabricated into atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) crystals with substantial ~ 1-2 eV bandgaps. As one example, monolayer MoS2 consists of a single layer of Mo atoms sandwiched between two layers of S atoms in a trigonal prismatic structure. The TMDC 2D system has attracted great interest because of its distinctive electronic and optical properties, such as (i) a transition from indirect-to-direct band gap in going from the multilayer to monolayer crystal due to a missing interlayer interaction in monolayer form and (ii) strong spin-orbit-coupling-induced split valence bands, i.e. 100’s of meV, due to broken inversion symmetry, which makes TMDCs interesting for spin-physics physics and devices. Both properties have been predicted with density functional theory (DFT) calculations and indirectly demonstrated using photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy.
Recently we have made a series of direct observations of the thickness-dependent electronic-band and crystal structure of TMDCs of both exfoliated and CVD grown sample. Because of the relatively modest sample sizes we have used micrometer-scale, angle-resolved photo-emission spectroscopy (micro-ARPES) of both the exfoliated and chemical-vapor-deposition-grown crystals; these measurements provide direct evidence for the shifting of the valence band maximum from gamma bar (Brillouin zone center) to kappa bar (Brillouin zone corner), as the sample thickness decreases from bulk to monolayer. Our initial results were with MoS2 and are described in a preliminary way in Refs 1 and 2. Our TMDC experimental results are compared with rigorous DFT calculations of both the bands and the UV transitions matrix elements. The results show an evolution in band structure, which is consistent with an indirect-to-direct bandgap transition in going from few-layer to monolayer TMDC and can be attributed to changes in quantum confinement as the number of layer decreases. Our microARPES and, subsequently, higher resolution nanospectroscopy data provide clear measurements of the hole effective mass, the strain present in the monolayer crystal films, and the valence-band spin-orbit splitting. Our results explain the low hole mobility of monolayer MoS2 compared to thicker MoS2 and show clearly the strong orbit split energies. Our results, using nanoLEED and LEEM also provide insight into the structure and defects in monolayer films. Experiments using K-doping of single-crystal samples and resulting level shifts are also described.
1. W. Jin, P.-C. Yeh, N. Zaki, D. Zhang, J. T. Sadowski, A. Al-Mahboob, A. M. van der Zande, D.l A. Chenet, J. I. Dadap, I. P. Herman, P. Sutter, J. Hone, R. M. Osgood, Jr., “Direct Measurement of the Thickness-Dependent Electronic Band Structure of MoS2 Using Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy.” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 106801 (2013)
2. Po-Chun Yeh, Wencan Jin, Nader Zaki, Datong Zhang, Jerzy T. Sadowski, Abdullah Al-Mahboob, Arend M. van der Zande, Daniel A. Chenet, Jerry I. Dadap, Irving P. Herman, Peter Sutter, James Hone, and Richard M. Osgood, Jr., “Probing substrate-dependent long-range surface structure of single-layer and multilayer MoS2 by low-energy electron microscopy and microprobe diffraction,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 155408 (2014)
2D+AS+HI+MC+NS+PS+SP+SS-TuA-3 X-ray Photoemission and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy Investigation of the Band Gap and Band Alignment for h-BN and MoS2 Materials and Interfaces
Benjamin French, Justin Brockman, Marc French, Markus Kuhn, Jeffery Bielefeld, Sean King (Intel Corporation); Eric Bersch, Gennadi Bersuker (SEMATECH); Jennifer DiStefano, Yu-Chuan Lin, Joshua Robinson (Penn State University)
Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) are two dimensional (2D) materials of significant interest for future nano-electronic devices. Due to a wide band gap (~ 6 eV), close lattice matching (< 2%) and atomic planarity, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is of primary interest as a potential substrate and gate dielectric in graphene channel transistor devices. In contrast, MoS2 is a 2D semiconducting material with a band gap of ~ 1.8 eV that is attractive as a possible complement or alternative to graphene for nano-electronic devices requiring a large band gap. A key property for the success of both h-BN and MoS2 in such devices is the interfacial band alignment with graphene, the gate contact metallization and the surrounding insulating dielectric materials. In this regard, we have utilized x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to determine the Schottky barrier and valence band offsets present at the interfaces between plasma enhanced chemically vapor deposited amorphous h-BN:H and chemically vapor deposited MoS2. In combination, we have utilized reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) to investigate the band gap of both h-BN and MoS2 materials to deduce the conduction band alignment. We show that in many instances the valence and conduction band offsets are significant and favorable for MoS2/h-BN transistor devices.
2D+AS+HI+MC+NS+PS+SP+SS-TuA-4 STM/STS Characterization of MoS2 Monolayers and Nanostructures
Adam Mills, Chuanhui Chen (Virginia Tech); Yifei Yu, Linyou Cao (North Carolina State University); Chenggang Tao (Virginia Tech)
Atomically thin molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and nanostructures have been the subject of intense research efforts for their fascinating properties and potential applications in future electronic and optical devices. Especially, monolayer MoS2, an atomically thin semiconductor with a direct band gap, as opposed to an indirect band gap in bulk MoS2, has been demonstrated as field effect transistors, optoelectronic devices and chemical sensors. In our experimental study, Monolayer MoS2 and MoS2 triangular nanostructures are synthesized through a self-limiting chemical vapor deposition (CVD) approach. The precursor materials, MoCl5 and sulfur, react at high temperatures to produce MoS2 species and subsequently precipitate onto substrates to yield MoS2 films and triangular nanostructures. Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we have investigated the structural and electronic properties of monolayer MoS2 grown on glassy carbon and triangular MoS2 nanostructures on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). We will also discuss our scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) measurements on these structures.
2D+AS+HI+MC+NS+PS+SP+SS-TuA-8 Surface Characterization of Metal Oxide Layers Grown on CVD Graphene and Spin Precession Measurements
Akitomo Matsubayashi (University at Albany-SUNY); Westly Nolting (University of Albany-SUNY); Dhiraj Prasad Sinha (University at Albany-SUNY); Avyaya Jayanthinarasimham, JiUng Lee (University of Albany-SUNY); Vincent LaBella (University at Albany-SUNY)
Ultra thin metal oxide films grown on graphene can be utilized as dielectric barriers between metals and graphene to help isolate a metal contact from the graphene channel for device applications. This is particularly important for graphene based spintronic devices as tunnel barriers between the ferromagnetic metal as a spin injector and graphene have been known to increase the spin relaxation time measured utilizing non-local detection technique of spin precession by avoiding the conductivity mismatch problem. However, simply depositing metal oxide layers such as aluminum oxide on graphene results in non-uniform film lowering the quality of the interface barrier. We will present a systematic study of aluminum oxide layers grown on CVD graphene under ultra-high vacuum conditions with and without titanium seed layers. The aluminum oxide layers with the 0.2 nm titanium seed layers showed reduced surface roughness. The chemical and structural composition determined by XPS will be also presented that shows full oxidation of the aluminum and partial oxidation of the titanium. The I-V characteristic study performed to electrically evaluate the metal oxide and the preliminary results of non-local spin precession measurements will be also addressed.
2D+AS+HI+MC+NS+PS+SP+SS-TuA-9 Morphology of CVD-grown Hexagonal Boron Nitride on Cu Foils
Karthik Sridhara, WilliamG. Cullen (University of Maryland, College Park); Jennifer Hite (Naval Research Laboratory); MichaelS. Fuhrer (Monash University, Australia); D.Kurt Gaskill, BorisN. Feigelson (Naval Research Laboratory)
Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has grown into prominence as a dielectric for graphene heterostructures. h-BN and graphene have been grown using chemical vapor deposition on various transition metal substrates. Compared to graphene, the morphology of CVD-grown h-BN on Cu has not been as widely studied. Here, we present a systematic study of the morphology of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) grown on polycrystalline Cu foils by chemical vapor deposition. The growth of h-BN is performed at ~1000°C in atmospheric pressure CVD with Ammonia Borane (H3NBH3) as the precursor. The copper foils, used as catalytic substrates, are thermally annealed at ~1030°C for >5 hours prior to growth and cooled slowly following growth termination. We utilized Ultra-high vacuum Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM), ambient AFM and SEM to assess the morphology of the CVD grown h-BN films. Highly symmetric single crystallites of h-BN are observed for sub-monolayer growth, in agreement with recent reports. We consistently observe a corrugated topographic structure within the h-BN crystallites which is distinctly different from the surrounding copper surface, and this is consistently seen in STM, AFM, and high-resolution SEM. Our aim is to understand the nature of this difference and whether it might be due to effects of differential thermal contraction between h-BN and copper. However, complications arise due to possible changes in the copper substrate topography post-growth due to surface oxidation of the copper. Preliminary results with lateral force microscopy (LFM, frictional mode) show that these corrugations are unidirectional in a single Cu grain irrespective of the orientation of the h-BN crystal and generate frictional forces 200% greater than on the surrounding copper surface, reminiscent of earlier reports of unique frictional behavior in atomically-thin membranes . STM and AFM are also used to study the twin crystal boundaries of h-BN. Preliminary STM observations indicate that merging h-BN crystals consistently have a gap of about 5 nm between them. The results of this study are independent of small variations of growth conditions.
 C. Lee, Q. Li, W. Kalb, X.-Z. Liu, H. Berger, R. Carpick, and J. Hone, “Frictional characteristics of atomically thin sheets,” Science (New York, N.Y.), vol. 328, no. 5974. pp. 76–80, 01-Apr-2010.
2D+AS+HI+MC+NS+PS+SP+SS-TuA-10 Influence of Chemisorbed Oxygen on the Growth of Graphene on Cu(100) and Cu(111) by Chemical Vapor Deposition
EngWen Ong (University at Albany-SUNY); Zachary Robinson (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory); Tyler Mowll, Parul Tyagi (University at Albany-SUNY); Heike Geisler (SUNY College at Oneonta); Carl Ventrice, Jr. (University at Albany-SUNY)
The influence of chemisorbed oxygen on the growth of graphene by catalytic decomposition of ethylene in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) chamber on both the Cu(100) and Cu(111) surfaces has been studied. A custom UHV compatible heater stage was constructed that allows heating of a crystal to temperatures as high as 1000 °C at hydrocarbon pressures of up to 100 mTorr. System recovery to the low 10-10 Torr range is achieved within a few minutes of opening the gate valve to the turbo pump. The crystal structure of the graphene films was characterized with in-situ low energy electron diffraction (LEED), and the growth morphology was monitored by ex-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For the clean Cu(100) substrate, heating from room temperature to the growth temperature while dosing with ethylene resulted in the formation of epitaxial graphene films. The crystal quality was found to depend strongly on the growth temperature. At 900 °C, well-ordered two-domain graphene films were formed. For the Cu(111) surface, heating from room temperature to the growth temperature while dosing with ethylene did not result in the formation of graphene. This is attributed to the lower catalytic activity of the (111) surface and the relatively high vapor pressure of the Cu surface. The use of an Ar overpressure to suppress Cu sublimation during the growth resulted in the formation of predominately single-domain epitaxial graphene films. Predosing either the Cu(100) or Cu(111) surface with a chemisorbed layer of oxygen before graphene growth was found to adversely affect the crystal quality of the graphene overlayers by inducing a much higher degree of rotational disorder of the graphene grains with respect to the substrate. The SEM analysis revealed that the nucleation rate of the graphene islands dropped by an order of magnitude after predosing either the Cu(100) or Cu(111) surface with a chemisorbed oxygen layer before growth. On the other hand, the average area of each graphene island was observed to increase by at least an order of magnitude. Therefore, the presence of oxygen during graphene growth affects both the relative orientation and average size of grains within the films grown on both substrates.
2D+AS+HI+MC+NS+PS+SP+SS-TuA-11 Novel Materials Properties at Atomically Thin Limit
Zhi-Xun Shen (Stanford University)
In this talk, I will discuss recent progresses in uncovering novel materials properties at ultra-thin limit, with focus on mono-unit-cell superconductor FeSe and semiconductor MoSe2 respectively.
The observation of a large superconducting-like energy gap which opens at temperatures up to 65 K in single unit cell (1UC) thick iron selenide films on SrTiO3(FeSe/STO) has generated tremendous interest. A challenge is to understand the cause of enhanced Cooper pairing strength in this system, and possibly increase superconducting Tc. In this talk, we show angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, mutual inductance, and other measurements on 1UC and multi-UC thick FeSe films grown on Nb-doped SrTiO3. Our data provide clear evidence for strong cross-interface electron-phonon coupling in single UC, raising the possibility that large pairing gap are caused by the strong coupling between the FeSe electrons and certain collective modes of SrTiO3. This suggests a pathway of “integrated functional components” approach to boost superconducting properties.
The intense interest of quantum systems in confined geometries is further amplified by the recent discovery of large enhancement in photo-luminescence quantum efficiency and a potential route to “valleytronics” in atomically thin layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se, Te), which are closely related to the indirect to direct band gap transition in the single layer limit. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) on high quality thin film samples of MoSe2 grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), we have made a direct observation of a distinct transition from indirect to direct band gap as the thickness of the sample is reduced to a monolayer. The experimental band structure indicates a stronger tendency of monolayer MoSe2 towards direct band gap with larger gap size than theoretical prediction. A comparison of directly measured ARPES band gap and optical data led to important new insights on semiconductor physics in 2D. Moreover, our finding of a significant spin-splitting of ~180meV at the valence band maximum (VBM) of a monolayer MoSe2 film could greatly expand its possible application in spintronic devices.
If time permits, I will also discuss the superconductivity in CaC6 and its implication on a possible pathway for superconducting graphene.