Scanning Probe Microscopy Poster Session
Thursday, November 13, 2014 6:00 PM in Room Hall D
SP+AS+EM+NS+SS-ThP-2 Fabrication of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Probe and Processing of Single Nanometer Scale Pit with High-Aspect-Ratio of Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite Using by STM
Syun Ohsumimoto, Akihito Matsumuro (Aichi Institute of Technology, Japan)
Our unique fabrication methods of high-aspect-ratio nanometer scale three-dimensional structures of pits, lines and convex parts using a multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT) with diameter of about 50 nm as a STM probe have been developed successfully. It turn out that this method has been applicable to surfaces of various conducting materials, such as noble metal thin films, low-resistivity single crystalline silicon wafer and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). We also have clarified that the physical origin of this nanometer-scale pit processing using STM must be the field evaporation mechanism by the results of TEM in-situ observations during fabrication process. In order to realize further ultra-precise three dimensional structures with high aspect ratio, it is surely required that a innovative ultimate ultra-precision processing technology needs fabrication size below several nm, i.e. single nanometer scale.
This study paid great attention to realize the ultimate processing of single nanometer scale structures using a single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) probe as our original STM processing. The most important problem was to overcome to much difficulty in synthesis of SWNT probes with high probability. Then, the application of mixed dispersion liquid containing both MWNTs and SWNTs could be devised at the process of producing SWNT probes. In this process, it was clarified that the SWNT easily attached to the point of the MWNT, which was easily adhered to the apex of the conventional tungsten needle through the pulling method that we developed originally. The success rate for synthesis of the SWNT probes with diameters of about 2 nm and 10 nm were drastically increased up to about 10 % and 14 %, respectively. As compared with the case where the dispersion liquid of only SWNT is used, success fabrication rate has been nearly equal to 0 %. Single nanometer scale pits were actually fabricated on HOPG in atmosphere and room temperature condition. The SWNT probe with diameter of about 2 nm under the conditions of a bias voltage of 5 V, tunnel current of 1 nA and fabrication time of 60 s could realize a single nanometer scale pit with the diameter of 9 nm and the depth of 13 nm. The aspect ratio with SWNT probes increased up to about 5 times in the case of MWNT probes. These demonstrate that these STM fabrications by using SWNT probes with several diameters must give a remarkable effect in fabricating three-dimensional high-aspect-ratio structures with single nanometer-scale.
SP+AS+EM+NS+SS-ThP-3 Probing the Electronic Structure of the Layered Electride Ca2N
Jeonghoon Ha (NIST/Maryland Nano Center, University of Maryland); Hongwoo Baek (NIST & Seoul National University, Republic of Korea); Duming Zhang (NIST/Maryland Nano Center, University of Maryland); Yeji Kim, SungWng Kim, Young Jae Song (Sungkyunkwan University, Republic of Korea); Young Kuk (Seoul National University, Republic of Korea); Joseph Stroscio (NIST)
Electrides are electronic materials in which excessive electrons are confined into cavities defined by the crystal structure. These excessive electrons take the place of negatively charged ions in an ionic crystal. The geometry of the cavities confining these anionic electrons determines the electronic properties of the material and provides a platform to study various interaction physics . A previous study reported the inorganic electride Ca2N to have a layered structure with anionic electrons confined to 2-dimensional cavities between the cationic crystal layers . In this previous study, transport measurements showed high electron mobility and long mean scattering time, and magneto-resistance measurements confirmed diffusive 2-dimensional transport in the electron layers.
In the present work, we use an ultra-low temperature scanning tunneling microscope to investigate the local electronic structure of a cleaved surface of a Ca2N single crystal. An energy gap was observed in the tunneling spectrum with a gap size of 0.4 meV. The spectra contain multiple coherence-like peaks which are equally spaced in energy, suggestive of possible multi-band superconductivity or quantum confinement in the electron layers. Temperature-dependent tunneling spectroscopy measurements show a gradual suppression of the energy gap up to 2.5 K. An interesting observation is that the gap structure and the peak features do not get suppressed in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field up to 14.5 T, suggesting if the crystal is in a superconducting state, then the critical field is extremely large compared to the transition temperature. These observations and further discussion of possible unconventional superconductivity will be discussed in this presentation.
 J. Dye, Science 301, 607 (2003)
 K. Lee et al, Nature 494, 336 (2013)
SP+AS+EM+NS+SS-ThP-5 Improving the Accuracy of Atomic Force Microscopy in Nanometrology for Linewidth Measurements
James Su, Nian-nan Chu, Ming-Hua Shiao, Chien-Nan Hsiao (Instrument Technology Research Center, National Applied Research Laboratories, Taiwan, Republic of China)
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has an important role in dimensional metrology especially in the nanoscale. The morphology image processed by the AFM is the interaction between the tip and the sample surface. The result of the interaction may cause broadening of peaks and shrinking of valleys in the scanning process caused by tip effects. It would be impossible to differentiate the portion due to the tip and the portion due to the sample surface without determining the tip geometry which is a key role in AFM-image quality. As a case study, AFM measurements of nanowires (NW), carbon nanotubes (CNT) and nano-honeycombs fabricated by nanosphere lithography (NSL) technology are examined. Line width measurement results may expand up to 39.5% by adopting a conventional pyramid-shaped probe and 17.5% by using a conical-shaped one as the dimensions of the scanned features approaches to the order of magnitude of the tip apex. The uncertainty of measurement would expand if tip wear occurs during image scan. Calculation for surface reconstruction has been developed to extract the part related to the tip from the SPM image. The SPM used for these measurements is equipped with a highly accurate scanning system, which employs closed-loop capacitive feedback control to ensure outstanding linearity and position accuracy. To identify the geometry of the tip, a silicon tip characterization grating was imaged between the measurements. Deconvolution process were carried out for topography image corrections, and the results were further compared with the ones measured from the scanning electron microscope (SEM). This process is essential to derive accurate measurement results in the nanoscale region.
SP+AS+EM+NS+SS-ThP-8 The Effect of Electrochemical Potential on Single Molecule Conductance
Esteban Sanchez, Rocio Aguilar (BUAP, Mexico); Sepideh Afsari (Temple University); Zhihai Li (Ball State University); Erick Borguet (Temple University)
Porphyrins have been widely studied for their electrochemical properties to understand charge transfer. The related property of charge transport can be accessed by single molecule conductance (SMC) measurements. The most common SMC studies involve transport between different anchor groups at transversal positions in the molecule . Few investigations have been made using porphyrins lying flat on the substrate in electrochemical environment . Recent studies have shown that the templating effect of self-assembly can be exploited to orient molecules in metal-molecule-metal junctions, so that transport perpendicular to the molecular plane can also be easily accessed .
This goal research is to use self assembly, verified by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), to measure charge transport in single porphyrins adsorbed flat on the Au (111) surface. 5,10,15,20-Tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrin (TPyP) is a good candidate for this research because it has been demonstrated that this porphyrin has a strong interaction with, and can form ordered layers on, Au (111) in electrochemical environment . This control of the orientation of the porphyrin by electrochemical potential enables us to make SMC measurements perpendicular to the molecular plane.
 Zhihai Li, Manuel Smeu, Mark A. Ratner, and Eric Borguet, Effect of Anchoring Groups on Single Molecule Charge Transport through Porphyrins, J. Phys. Chem. C, 117, 14890−14898 (2013).
 Quirina Ferreira, Ana M. Braganca, Luís Alcacer, and Jorge Morgado, Conductance of Well-Defined Porphyrin Self-Assembled Molecular Wires up to 14 nm in Length, J. Phys. Chem. C, 118, 7229−7234 (2014)
 Sepideh Afsari, Zhihai Li, and Eric Borguet, Orientation-Controlled Single-Molecule Junctions, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 53, 9771 –9774 (2014).
 Tao Ye, Yufan He, and Eric Borguet, Adsorption and Electrochemical Activity: An In Situ Electrochemical Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Study of Electrode Reactions and Potential-Induced Adsorption of Porphyrins, J. Phys. Chem. B, 110, 6141-6147 (2006).