Decorative Vacuum Coatings
Wednesday, April 12, 2000 1:30 PM in Room Atlas Foyer
G7-1 Decorative PVD Coatings for Consumer Market. Characterization and Performance of Zirconium and Titanium Based Nitrides
K. Brøndum (Damixa A/S, Denmark); L. Gudmand-Højer, P. Petkov, M. Balslev, P. Morgen (SDU-Odense University)
Damixa A/S , a division of Masco Corporation, has introduced Brilliance@super ä@for the European faucet market. The development of Brilliance@super ä@ standard has been set forth by customer demand for superior performance of brass, gold and other metallic colors. PVD processing has made this development possible and Damixa has three surface finishes conforming to Brilliance@super ä@ and several under development.@paragraph@ Details on PVD technology, performance and reproducibility of coatings will be presented. Samples of deposited films are analyzed for microscopic holes and film uniformity using an electron microscope with EDX and Scanning Auger microscopy in combination with sputter profiling.
G7-3 Surface Oxidation on Decorative Hard Coatings with Enriched Carbon Content
W.S. Fleischer, T. Trinh (Hauzer Coating Centrum BV, The Netherlands); G.J. van der Kolk, A.P.A. Hurkmans (Hauzer Techno Coating Europe BV, The Netherlands); P. Willich (Fraunhofer Institute Braunschweig, Germany)
The surface oxidation, especially on carbon enriched tap coatings in multilayer systems can generate long-term surface oxidations with colour changes. These effects have been studied on carbonnitride multilayer coatings with Zr as metal component. Through variation of plasma conditions and coating parameters, including reactiv gas composition, the surface oxidation could be solved. The surface analysis and deep profiles will be displayed with different multilayer systems
G7-4 Corrosion Performance of TiN Coatings Produced by Filtered Arc Deposition for Decorative Applications
J.S. Gopalakrishna, A.C. Vlasveld, T.H. Randle, E.D. Doyle (Swinburne University of Technology, Australia)
The Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) technique is a powerful method for producing protective, hard coatings for a wide range of applications such as cutting and forming tools, architectural glass applications and microelectronics @reference 1@. For decorative coating applications, the use of PVD processes, when compared to traditional electrochemical plating, has caused a significant improvement in the performance of coatings @reference 1,2@. These improvements include well adherent, wear resistant coatings with a wide spectrum of colours. In addition to this, the growing awareness of environmental issues associated with electroplating, has resulted in the further development of combinations of PVD and electroplating techniques, for decorative applications @reference 1, 2@. @paragraph@ The major function of decorative coatings apart from giving the desired colour, is to protect the underlying substrate material from corrosion. Among various PVD methods available, the most promising and commercially available are electron beam evaporation, magnetron sputtering and vacuum arc evaporation @reference 1, 2, 3@. The vacuum arc deposition technique has been shown to provide a superior adhesion between the film and substrate, compared to other PVD processes @reference 3@. However, the arc process has found limited use in the decorative field because of the incorporation of macroparticles into the deposited coating @reference 3@. Subsequently, the underlying substrate can be exposed to an aggressive environment, causing failure of the coating. @paragraph@ The objective of this study is to investigate the corrosion performance of TiN coatings for decorative applications. The filtered arc (partial and full) deposition is combined with electrochemically deposited barrier coatings for this purpose. The filtered arc source used in this study consists of both straight and curved ducts through which a solenoidal magnetic field is produced to guide an ionised plasma through to the coating chamber. Since macroparticles have no charge, they are unaffected by this magnetic field and consequently, deposit on the sides of the ducts. The substrates employed for the coatings are typically used in commercial hardware such as brass, zinc and mild steel. The structure and composition of TiN coatings are investigated. The corrosion performance and electrochemical behaviour of TiN coating is assessed by electrochemical techniques.@paragraph@ @footnote 1@H. Maidhof, D Hofmann, S. Kunkel, H. Schuessler, Developments in decorative coatings, 39th Annual technical Conference Proceedings, 1996 Society of Vacuum Coaters, pp. 109-113. @footnote 2@G. Reiners, U. Beck, H.A. Jehn, Decorative optical coatings, Thin Solid Films, 253(1994),pp. 33-40. @footnote 3@JK.C. Shimpi, K. Ravindranath, A.K. Jani, D.C. Kothari, C.S. Harindranath, Decorative coatings produced using combination of reactive arc evaporation and magnetron sputtering, Surface and Coatings Technology, 90(1997), pp. 115-122.
G7-5 Corrosion Characterization of Zirconium Nitride Multi-layer Coatings
W.K. Grant (Vapor Technologies, Inc.); B. Mishra (Colorado School of Mines)
Zirconium nitride coatings were analyzed by DC electrochemical techniques to determine the resistance of PVD/electroplated multi-layers against uniform and pitting corrosion. Linear and cyclic polarization scans revealed the effect of cathodic arc PVD process conditions on the corrosion resistance of ZrN deposited on various substrates. These results correlated well with what has been observed in the field. The current research indicates that corrosion resistance is influenced by the microstructure of the ZrN. More specifically, stress and orientation in the coating stack are shown to have a direct impact on the pitting as well as uniform corrosion resistance. Other factors affecting the corrosion properties were electroplating chemistries, sub-PVD layers as well as post deposition treatments.
G7-7 Engineered Properties of Decorative Coatings by Combined Arc Evaporation and Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering
A.P.A. Hurkmans, M. Eerden, G.J. van der Kolk, W.S. Fleischer (Hauzer Techno Coating Europe BV, The Netherlands)
Decorative hard coatings by PVD are well established on the market. The main technologies used are arc evaporation and unbalanced magnetron sputtering. Both technologies have their own advantages in structural growth and bandwidth in color possibilities. The basic limitation in structural growth is set by the limited temperature resistance of the typical substrate materials, like brass, zinc and ABS plastics. Resulting open, columnar structures give rise to corrosion attack and finger print sensitivity. Nucleation and growth of the columnar structures can be changed by tailored usage of well selected metal ions, generated by the arc technology. In this paper we describe the effect of using multi-layer structures whereby layers are deposited alternately by the two different methods, ARC and Magnetron. Endurance properties and color windows have been measured and are present.
G7-8 The Industrial Scale-up of the SLC-coating Technology for Chromelike Surfaces - A Combination of Powder Painting and Physical Vapor Deposition Gets to the Industry
H.M. Gabriel (DUROVIB Oberfl@um a@chentechnik GmbH, Germany)
As reported las year the SLC (Surface-Like Chrome) - technology is a combination of powder paint techniques and an ion-assisted metallizing PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition) - process to give surfaces a high gloss, chromelike, reflective apearnace.@paragraph@The SLC coating is a multilayer coating, whre a PVD - metal layer is deposited snadwichlike in between different polymer powder coats.@paragraph@Apart from any kind of surface which is presently electroplated with chrome the vast range of automotive parts is possibly the biggest potential in the industry, just to name the wheel industry fo the SLC - technology.@paragraph@Currently more than 100 million pieces/year are the total worldwide market for Aluminium light alloy wheels with a strong growth. Within this market there is a fast growing segment with a very high demand for bright, high gloss chrome finish. This market is already very well developed in the U.S., but also rapidly growing in Europe. The steel wheel market is even larger than the Al - wheel.@paragraph@At DUROVIB Oberfl@um a@chentechnik GmbH these facts were considered as a challenge to develop a high quality coating and/or process to eliminate the technical disadvantages of the existing coating processes and to offer a cost cutting alternative at the same time.@paragraph@Within the last 12 montsh DUROVIB has installed an SLC - production facility for 1,000,000 wheels per year. This facility is shown in detail.@paragraph@Furthermore detail of the coating process as well as coating properties are reported.
G7-9 Dependence of Properties of Arc-Deposited ZrN Coatings on Deposition Rate
P. Sullivan, K. Riddle, H. Cao (Vapor Technologies, Inc.)
Increasing the deposition rate shortens PVD cycle time, which can improve the efficiency of a production operation. But, deposition rate regulates the temperature of the substrate and generally influences the dynamics of film growth resulting in modification of coating properties. Using cathodic arc, we deposited ZrN at different rates on rotating substrates and analyzed the coatings. Our results indicate that deposition rate influenced properties of the coatings such as color, preferred crystal orientation, stress and chemical reactivity. Coating performance and respective processes will be presented and discussed.