AVS2016 Session EM+NS+PS+SS+TF-MoM: Growth and Devices Technology of Group III-Nitrides

Monday, November 7, 2016 8:20 AM in Room 102A

Monday Morning

Time Period MoM Sessions | Abstract Timeline | Topic EM Sessions | Time Periods | Topics | AVS2016 Schedule

Start Invited? Item
8:20 AM EM+NS+PS+SS+TF-MoM-1 Development of AlGaN based UV Laser Diodes
Ronny Kirste (Adroit Materials); Biplab Sakar, Alexander Franke (NCSU); James Tweedie (Adroit Materials); Zachary Bryan, Isaac Bryan (NCSU); Seiji Mita (Adroit Materials); Ramon Collazo, Zlatko Sitar (NCSU)

UV laser diodes are widely desired for many important applications such as chemical and biological sensing, non-line of sight communications, and DNA tagging. Design and fabrication of AlGaN based laser diodes is the most promising pathway for next generation UV lasers but challenges for these devices are many including low n- and p-conductivity, absorbing injection layers, and non-ohmic contacts. Here, we present recent advances in the growth and fabrications of UV laser diodes. The presentation will cover the most important steps that are necessary to achieve electrically injected UV laser diodes. These include: AlGaN epitaxy, doping, fabrication, and design.

As an advancement over most existing approaches, we pursue the growth of our device structures on single crystalline AlN substrates which allows for low dislocation densities < 104 cm2. Any such device fabrication is started with the growth of an AlN homoepitaxial layer. It is demonstrated that this epitaxial layer can be grown with a dislocation density that follows that of the substrate and no interface between layer and substrate is observed in TEM, which indicates true homoepitaxy. Subsequent growth of AlGaN layers with Al content ranging 50-85% is shown to be pseudomorphic. An excellent control of the AlGaN surface morphology is demonstrated using a supersaturation scheme and bilayer steps as needed for highly efficient MQWs are achieved. MQWs for emission at wavelengths ranging 240-280 nm are discussed and optically pumped lasing in this region is demonstrated. The chosen approach to grow on AlN is validated by realizing MQWs with an IQE exceeding 90%. In order to achieve electrically injected UV lasing, Al-rich AlGaN is doped and free electron concentrations for the n-cladding with 80% Al-content is shown to be around 8x1018 cm-3. In contrast, p-doping of AlGaN is much more challenging because of the high activation energy of the Mg acceptor. Consequently, achievable free hole concentration and conductivity of the p-cladding are low. We discuss how these epitaxial layers can be used for realizing laser diodes. Experimental work is supported by simulations and used to direct the UV laser design. Finally, we present electrical data and electroluminescence spectra from fully fabricated diodes and discuss the future challenges that need to be addressed to demonstrate the first electrically injected UV laser diode.
9:00 AM EM+NS+PS+SS+TF-MoM-3 Low-Temperature PA-ALD Growth Technology for Group III-Nitride Nano-heterostructures and their (Opto)Electronic Device Applications
Necmi Biyikli, Ali Haider, Seda Kizir, Petro Deminskyi, Mehmet Yilmaz, Sami Bolat, Asli Celebioglu, Ali Okyay, Tamer Uyar (Bilkent University, Turkey); Fatih Buyukserin, Sevde Altuntas (TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Turkey); Ibrahim Yilmaz, Khulud Khaled (Turgut Ozal University, Turkey)
Being initially developed for an entire different area of use, atomic layer deposition (ALD) became a widespread tool to grow functional films and conformal ultra-thin coatings for numerous applications. Based on self-limiting surface reactions, ALD enabled the low-temperature growth of various materials including dielectrics, semiconductors, and metals. Featuring the capability to deposit wafer-scale uniform semiconductor films at relatively low-temperatures with sub-monolayer thickness control and ultimate conformality makes ALD attractive for the semiconductor community. Towards this end, precursors and growth recipes are developed to deposit crystalline thin films for compound and elemental semiconductors. Conventional thermal ALD techniques as well as plasma-assisted and radical-enhanced ALD techniques have been exploited to achieve decent film quality compatible with device applications.

In this presentation, we give an overview of our research efforts on plasma-assisted ALD-based nanoscale semiconductor research focusing on III-nitrides. We have combined our low-temperature thin-film growth recipes with various nanoscale templates and exploited the conformality feature of ALD technique to fabricate nitride nanostructures. Electrospun polymeric nanofibers have been used to produce flexible polymer/III-nitride core-shell structures which might be used for flexible optoelectronics. In addition, hollow-core multi-shell III-nitride nano-heterostructures are demonstrated as well. Anodized alumina (AAO) templates were utilized to fabricate large-area ordered III-nitride nanostructures including radial heterostructures. Extensive growth and fabrication recipe development and materials characterization details will be presented.

The synthesized III-nitride nanoscale semiconductor materials might find applications in a vast amount of applications including physical and chemical sensing, piezo-electric energy harvesting, photocatalysis, nanoscale and flexible (opto)electronics. As proof-of-principle device demonstrations, we have shown nanofibrous GaN/InN-based photocatalysis, GaN/InN-based chemical (gas) sensing, and nanoscale GaN-based UV photodetectors.

9:40 AM EM+NS+PS+SS+TF-MoM-5 Structural Qualities of GaN Grown on AlN Buffer Layer by MEPA-MOCVD
Daniel Seidlitz, Indika Senevirathna, Alireza Fali, Yohannes Abate, Nikolaus Dietz (Georgia State University); Axel Hoffmann (Technical University Berlin, Germany)

This study focusses on the influence of Aluminum nitride (AlN) buffer layers on the structural and optoelectronic properties of subsequent overgrown Gallium nitride (GaN) layers, using Migration Enhanced Plasma-Assisted Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MEPA-MOCVD).

One challenge in group-III nitride growth is the lattice mismatch between the substrate (e.g. sapphire (Al2O3), silicon or silicon carbide) and the group III-Nitride layer as for example GaN. Lattice mismatch imposes compressive strain/stress and influences the crystal quality of subsequent grown group-III nitrides. Inserting an AlN interlayer between the sapphire substrate and the GaN epilayer, transitions the oxygen surface chemistry to a nitrogen surface chemistry, separating surface chemistry related defects from lattice mismatch induced defects, which leads to an improved crystalline quality of the overgrowning GaN layer.

All group III-Nitride layers are grown on sapphire substrates using MEPA-MOCVD. The system design allows the growth of GaN at lower temperatures by using plasma activated nitrogen species (N*/NH*/NHx*) as nitrogen precursor, which are generated by a radio-frequency hollow cathode plasma source (MEAglowTM) scalable from 20W up to 600W. The tunable nitrogen plasma source enables to control the kinetic energies of the active nitrogen species in the afterglow region to be directed at the growth surface, where they interact with metalorganic (MO) precursors. The growth process parameter set includes: reactor pressure, growth temperature, pulsed injection of MO- and nitrogen plasma fluxes, plasma species and their energies.

The structural properties of the AlN buffer layers (e.g. local ordering, grain size, surface topography) are analyzed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The film thickness and optoelectronic properties of the AlN and GaN layers are studied Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) and reflectance spectroscopy. Results are presented on the structural and optoelectronic properties of the GaN layers as function of the process parameters and the properties of the underlying AlN buffer layer.

10:00 AM EM+NS+PS+SS+TF-MoM-6 Optical and Electrical Characteristics of Gamma-ray Irradiated AlGaN/GaN Heterostructures
MinPrasad Khanal, Burcu Ozden, Kyunghyuk Kim, Sunil Uprety, Vahid Mirkhani, Li Shen, Kosala Yapabandara, Ayayi C. Ahyi, Minseo Park (Auburn University)

AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) show their potential immunity toward high energy radiation related damages, making them promising candidates for the radiation hard electronics. The degradation in performance of these devices under radiation exposed environment might be due to different possible effects in the device structure such as strain/stress, generation of dislocation, carrier removal and reduction in two-dimensional-electron-gas (2DEG) concentration.The AlGaN/GaN epi structures grown on 6 inch Si wafer were used and irradiated with 120 MRad doses of gamma-ray produced from 60Co source. The semi-transparent (with 10-15 nm thickness) Ni Schottky diodes and circular HEMT devices were fabricated using un-irradiated and gamma-ray irradiated AlGaN/GaN epi structures. In the case of HEMT devices, Ti/Al/Ni (30/180/40 nm thickness) for the ohmic contact and Ir (15 nm thickness) for the gate contact formation were deposited using dc magnetron sputtering system. Spectroscopic photo current-voltage (IV) measurements both with sub-band gap and above band-gap illumination, micro-Raman/photoluminescence spectroscopy, and transistor characterizations were performed. The spectroscopic photo IV measurements were carried out by applying the variable wavelength ultra-violet (UV) and visible light from Xenon lamp source under reverse bias condition. Sub-bandgap illumination (800 nm-400 nm) provided the information about sub-bandgap energy levels of defects by relating the change in photocurrent level in response to the applied light spectrum. On the other hand, above bandgap illumination (280 nm-400 nm) utilizes the fact that the penetration depth of a light varies as a function of wavelength. The result showed reduction in photocurrent on the gamma-ray irradiated samples in comparison to the un-irradiated samples, revealing the possibility of creation of extra defects, and hence, decreasing the carrier concentration in the 2DEG. Micro-Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic analysis on both the samples were also performed and the results show no substantial change in their spectra, supporting the conclusion from previous scientific reports of radiation resistance of the HEMTs on their bulk structure level. Decrease in drain current and transconductance were observed from the transistor IV measurements, indicating a possible reduction in carrier concentration. It can be concluded that the reduction on photocurrent, drain current level and transconductance after the gamma-ray irradiation are due to the possible creation of some extra defects and decrease of carrier concentration on 2DEG channel.

10:20 AM BREAK
10:40 AM EM+NS+PS+SS+TF-MoM-8 Seeded Regrowth for Production of AlN and GaN Substrates by HVPE
Jacob Leach, Kevin Udwary, Gregg Dodson, Paul Gentry, Paul Quayle, Thomas Schneider, Heather Splawn, Keith Evans (Kyma Technologies, Inc.)

Freestanding GaN and freestanding AlN remain the substrates of choice for the highest performing vertical high voltage switching devices (>1200V) and UV optoelectronics, respectively. However, the cost of these substrates remains high, availability remains low, and the crystalline quality of these substrates varies depending on the growth technique employed. In particular, the electrical quality of GaN substrates and the UV transparency of AlN substrates depend on the specific growth conditions utilized and it remains a challenge to maintain high crystalline quality while simultaneously realizing high electrical quality or UV transparency. We proposed the use of hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) as a cloning technique to replicate the high crystalline quality of existing solvothermally grown GaN or physical vapor transport (PVT) grown AlN substrates while maintaining high electrical and optical quality. In this talk, we report Kyma’s recent results in the use of the HVPE replication technique for realizing both AlN and GaN substrates.

Time Period MoM Sessions | Abstract Timeline | Topic EM Sessions | Time Periods | Topics | AVS2016 Schedule