AVS2012 Session GR+AS+BI+PS+SS-WeM: Graphene Surface Chemistry, Functionalization, Biological and Sensor Applications

Wednesday, October 31, 2012 8:00 AM in Room 13

Wednesday Morning

Time Period WeM Sessions | Abstract Timeline | Topic GR Sessions | Time Periods | Topics | AVS2012 Schedule

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8:00 AM GR+AS+BI+PS+SS-WeM-1 Structural Analysis of Chemically Functionalized Epitaxial Graphene with High-Resolution X-ray Reflectivity
Jonathan Emery, Qing Hua Wang, Marie Zarrouati (Northwestern University); Paul Fenter (Argonne National Laboratory); Mark Hersam, Michael Bedzyk (Northwestern University)

For graphene to realize its potential in next-generation electronics it must be incorporated with a variety of materials to form devices. Recently, the use of self-assembled organic monolayers deposited on epitaxial graphene (prepared by graphitization of the 6H-SiC(0001) surface) has been effective in the functionalization of the bare graphene sheet, enabling the additional chemistry necessary for device fabrication. In this work, we present high-resolution X-ray Reflectivity (XRR) studies of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) on epitaxial graphene. Initially, a model-independent vertical electron density profile of the graphene/silicon carbide interface is retrieved with the use of Feinup-based error correction algorithms in order to minimize ambiguities that can arise from model-based methods. This retrieved structure is then used as the foundation for model-based analysis, from which the final structures are extracted. A series of structures comprising 0, 1, and 2MLs of PTCDA deposited on 1-2ML graphene are discussed. The interlayer spacing between the PTCDA and top graphene layer are revealed to be approximately 0.35 nm, which supports the view that the PTCDA molecules are interacting only weakly (van der Waals) with the graphene layer. In addition to the characterization of PTCDA-functionalized graphene, we will also demonstrate the efficacy of these molecules to form a weakly-interacting seeding layer for subsequent growth of high-k dielectrics via atomic layer deposition.

8:20 AM GR+AS+BI+PS+SS-WeM-2 In Situ FT-IR Study of Graphene Fluorination using XeF2
Jean-François Veyan, Natis Shafiq (University of Texas at Dallas); Kostya Novoselov (University of Manchester, UK); Yves Chabal (University of Texas at Dallas)
Graphene fluorination to obtain fluorographene has been successfully realized by exposing graphene flakes to molecular Xenon-Difluroride 1-3. To gain a mechanistic understanding of XeF2 reaction with the graphene flakes, an all-aluminum custom-made two-stage reaction cell has been designed to fit into the main sample compartment of an FTIR Nicolet 6700 interferometer, for in situ infrared absorption spectroscopy. The first stage is a clean expansion chamber to isolate the pure XeF2 in its gas phase, from solid XeF2 (powder) stored in a storage vessel. The XeF2 vapor is extracted by opening the valve V1 to the storage chamber and its pressure (up to ~4 Torr) is controlled by the valve V2. The second stage is a reactor equipped with two KBr windows, allowing the IR beam to penetrate and exit the enclosure. A pneumatic valve allows the transfer of gaseous XeF2 from stage 1 into stage 2. Pressures in both storage and reactor chambers are measured with Baratron gauges (Ga1, Ga2). To avoid any contamination of the reactor and sample holders during sample preparation and loading, a N2-purged glove bag is placed over the reactor to maintain a controlled environment. The graphene flakes in suspension in a NMP (N-Methylpyrrolidon) solution, are transferred onto three mechanically polished Aluminum plates at a temperature of 70oC. The plates are then mounted on the specially designed 3-reflection sample holder flange designed to fit stage 2.

By varying the sample temperature from 20 to 200oC as well as the XeF2 pressure in the reactor stage from 0.1 to 4 Torr, the chemical attachment of fluorine on graphene is identified from a comprehensive FT-IR study performed under under industrial conditions. Fluorine attached out of plane can be easily differentiated from fluorine attached at edges (i.e. remaining within the basal plane) and terminating the edge atoms.

1 R. R. Nair, et al., Small 6, 2877 (2010).

2 J. T. Robinson, et al., Nano Letters 10, 3001 (2010).

3 K.-J. Jeon, et al., Acs Nano 5, 1042 (2011).

8:40 AM GR+AS+BI+PS+SS-WeM-3 Molecularly Resolved Chemical Functionalization of Graphene
Mark Hersam (Northwestern University)

Graphene has emerged as one of the leading materials in condensed matter physics due to its superlative electrical and mechanical properties. With an eye towards expanding its functionality and applications, this talk will highlight our latest efforts to tailor the surface chemistry of graphene [1]. At the molecular scale, we employ ultra-high vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and conductive atomic force microscopy (cAFM) to characterize chemically modified epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001) [2,3]. For example, a suite of perylene-based molecules form highly ordered self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on graphene via gas-phase deposition in UHV [4,5]. Due to their noncovalent bonding, these SAMs preserve the superlative electronic properties of the underlying graphene while providing uniform and tailorable chemical functionality [6]. In this manner, disparate materials (e.g., high-k gate dielectrics) can be seamlessly integrated with graphene, thus enabling the fabrication of capacitors, transistors, and related electronic/excitonic devices [7]. Alternatively, via aryl diazaonium chemistry, functional polymers can be covalently grafted to graphene [8], while exposure to atomic oxygen in UHV enables chemically homogeneous and thermally reversible covalent epoxy functionalization [9]. Beyond UHV STM characterization, this talk will also delineate our most recent efforts to exploit chemically modified graphene in technologically significant applications including photovoltaics [10], transparent conductors [11-13], flexible GHz transistors [14], in vivo biomedical applications [15,16], and photocatalysts [17].

[1] Q. H. Wang and M. C. Hersam, MRS Bull., 36, 532 (2011).

[2] J. A. Kellar et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 96, 143103 (2010).

[3] J. M. P. Alaboson et al., Adv. Mater., 23, 2181 (2011).

[4] Q. H. Wang and M. C. Hersam, Nature Chemistry, 1, 206 (2009).

[5] Q. H. Wang and M. C. Hersam, Nano Lett., 11, 589 (2011).

[6] J. D. Emery et al., Surf. Sci., 605, 1685 (2011).

[7] J. M. P. Alaboson, et al., ACS Nano, 5, 5223 (2011).

[8] Md. Z. Hossain et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 132, 15399 (2010).

[9] Md. Z. Hossain et al., Nature Chemistry, 4, 305 (2012).

[10] I. P. Murray et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2, 3006 (2011).

[11] A. A. Green and M. C. Hersam, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 1, 544 (2010).

[12] A. A. Green and M. C. Hersam, Nano Lett., 9, 4031 (2009).

[13] Y. T. Liang and M. C. Hersam, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 132, 17661 (2010).

[14] C. Sire et al., Nano Lett., 12, 1184 (2012).

[15] M. C. Duch et al., Nano Lett., 11, 5201 (2011).

[16] J.-W. T. Seo et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2, 1004 (2011).

[17] Y. T. Liang et al., Nano Lett., 11, 2865 (2011).
9:40 AM GR+AS+BI+PS+SS-WeM-6 Structure of a Peptide Adsorbed on Graphene and Graphite
Jyoti Katoch (University of Central Florida); Sang Nyon Kim, Zhifeng Kuang, Barry Farmer, Rajesh Naik (Air Force Research Laboratory); Suren Tatulian, Masa Ishigami (University of Central Florida)
Non-covalent functionalization of graphene using peptides is a promising method for producing novel sensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. We have performed atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations to investigate peptide-binding behavior to graphene and graphite. We studied a dodecamer peptide, GAMHLPWHMGTL, identified by phage display to possess affinity for graphite.
Optical spectroscopy reveals that the peptide forms secondary structures both in powder form and in an aqueous medium. The dominant structure in the powder form is α-helix, which undergoes a transition to a distorted helical structure in aqueous solution. The peptide forms a complex reticular structure upon adsorption on graphene and graphite, having a helical conformation different from α-helix due to its interaction with the surface. Our observation is consistent with our molecular dynamics calculations and our study paves way for rational functionalization of graphene using biomolecules with defined structures and, therefore, functionalities. Our results have recently been published [1].
[1] J. Katoch, S.N. Kim, Z. Kuang, B. L. Farmer, R. R. Naik, S. A. Tatulian, and M. Ishigami, dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl300286k, Nano Letters (2012).
10:00 AM BREAK - Complimentary Coffee in Exhibit Hall
10:40 AM GR+AS+BI+PS+SS-WeM-9 Controlling the Spatial Distribution of Graphene Chemistry
Sandra Hernández, Evgeniya Lock, Scott Walton, Charlee Bennett, Rory Stine, Paul Sheehan, Francisco Bezares, Luke Nyakiti, Rachael Myers-Ward, Jeremy Robinson, Joshua Caldwell, Charles Eddy, Jr., Kurt Gaskill (Naval Research Laboratory)
Graphene has attracted a widespread of interest because of its unique structural and electronic properties however, manipulation of these properties is necessary before realizing its full potential as the next generation material in a broad range of applications. Precise control of the surface chemistry of graphene can allow for subsequent surface procedures both for device fabrication (i.e. atomic layer deposition) and sensor applications. Chemical composition strongly impacts the electronic properties as well as chemical reactivity, both globally and locally. Electron-beam generated plasmas are capable of imparting a variety of functional group types over a range of coverages with minimal damage to the carbon back bone because of their inherently low ion energies and as such offer a unique approach for large area uniform processing of graphene films with controlled surface chemistry. The ability to manipulate the surface chemistry of this atomically thin material coupled with the capability to regulate the spatial distribution of functional will be discussed. Plasma processing conditions and characteristics, as well as the resulting chemical, structural, and electrical properties of the functionalized graphene will be demonstrated. This work is supported by the Naval Research Laboratory base program.
11:00 AM GR+AS+BI+PS+SS-WeM-10 Coverage-dependent Ordering of Adsorbed Iron Phthalocyanine on Epitaxial Graphene Grown on SiC(0001)-Si
Andreas Sandin, Dan Dougherty, Jack Rowe (North Carolina State University)

The crystallographic and electronic structure of monolayer and sub-monolayer Iron-Phthalocyanine (FePc) films are experimentally studied on graphene grown on SiC(0001) using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy (STM and STS) as well as Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED). At full monolayer coverage of FePc the STM images show that a nearly square overlayer lattice forms with flat-lying molecules and a densely-packed structure oriented 10° relative to the graphene principle lattice directions. This close-packed structure i appears to be the same as that previously reported for FePc on graphite surfaces. For sub-monolayer coverage at room temperature, our STM images suggest that FePc forms a unique 2D molecular gas with images that have the hexagonal symmetry of the graphene honeycomb lattice. This is interpreted as suggesting that only a small diffusion barrier exists for molecular motion between neighboring sites in the 3-fold symmetry of the sub-monolayer overlayer lattice. The sub-monolayer gas condenses into islands at liquid Nitrogen temperatures with bare graphene regions and this implies that a weak attractive interaction exists between FePc molecules causing the close-packed ordering. Near defects in the graphene lattice we observe ring-like structures at room temperature that suggest an increased residence time of the mobile 2-D gas of FePc molecules. Our results using Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy suggest the possibility of a hybrid molecule-graphene state in the unoccupied density of both states near the Fermi level which could possibly be useful in modifying the charge injection into graphene in future devices.

11:20 AM GR+AS+BI+PS+SS-WeM-11 A Molecular Route to Carbon Nanomembranes, Graphene and Their Hybrids with Tailored Physical and Chemical Properties
Andrey Turchanin (University of Bielefeld, Germany)

Bottom-up approaches via molecular self-assembly have high potential to facilitate the applications of two-dimensional (2D) carbon materials in nanotechnology. In this talk it will be demonstrated how self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of aromatic molecules can be employed to this end. These monolayers are converted into carbon nanomembranes (CNMs) with a thickness of one molecule by electron or photon irradiation. CNMs can be separated from their original substrates and transferred onto various other substrates, fabricated as suspended nanomembranes or stacked into multilayer films with precise control over their thickness and composition. They possess two chemically distinct faces, which can be used for their selective functionalization, opening broad avenues for the engineering of novel materials with tailored on demand properties. High temperature annealing induces the transformation of CNMs into graphene, which allows large-area fabrication of the homogenous sheets with tunable electrical, optical and chemical properties. Integration of graphene sheets with CNMs into novel hybrids presents a promising route to flexibly functionalize graphene for applications as optical, electrical, chemical and biofunctional coating in nanoelectronics and sensors. Various physical and chemical properties of these novel materials, their nanopatterning and functional applications will be presented.

1) A. Turchanin and A. Gölzhäuser, Prog. Surf. Sci. (2012) in press.

2) A. Turchanin, D. Weber, M. Büenfeld, C. Kisielowski, M. Fistul, K. Efetov, R. Stosch, T. Weimann, J. Mayer, A. Gölzhäuser, ACS Nano 5 (2011) 3896-3904.

3) C.T. Nottbohm, A. Turchanin, A. Beyer, R. Stosch, A. Gölzhäuser, Small 7 (2011) 874-883.

4) Z. Zheng, C.T. Nottbohm, A. Turchanin, H. Muzik, A. Beyer, M. Heilemann, M. Sauer, A. Gölzhäuser, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49 (2010) 8493-8497.

5) A. Turchanin, A. Beyer, C.T. Nottbohm, X. H. Zhang, R. Stosch, A. Sologubenko, J. Mayer, P. Hinze, T. Weimann, A. Gölzhäuser, Adv. Mater. 21, 1233-1237 (2009).
Time Period WeM Sessions | Abstract Timeline | Topic GR Sessions | Time Periods | Topics | AVS2012 Schedule