AVS2012 Session GR+EM+ET+NS+TF-MoA: Electronic Properties and Charge Transport

Monday, October 29, 2012 2:00 PM in Room 13

Monday Afternoon

Time Period MoA Sessions | Abstract Timeline | Topic GR Sessions | Time Periods | Topics | AVS2012 Schedule

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2:00 PM GR+EM+ET+NS+TF-MoA-1 Influence of Substrate Offcut on Electrical and Morphological Properties of Epitaxial Graphene
Rachael Myers-Ward, Virginia Wheeler, Luke Nyakiti, Travis Anderson, Francisco Bezares, Joshua Caldwell, Anindya Nath, Neeraj Nepal, Charles Eddy, Jr., Kurt Gaskill (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory)
The promise of graphene-based device technologies is critically dependent on uniform wafer-scale graphene films and is most directly met through epitaxial graphene (EG) growth on silicon carbide (SiC) substrates. An essential parameter which influences this uniformity is the substrate offcut, as any deviation will result in a local change in the terrace width, impacting the growth rate and step-bunched heights observed after EG formation. For nominally on-axis SiC substrates, typical offcuts can range from ~0° to ~1° off-axis toward the [11-20] direction. Offcuts approaching 0° produce wide terraces with short step-bunched heights which offers the possibility of reduced anisotropy of transport properties [M. Yakes, et al., Nano Lett. 10(5), 1559 (2010)] and improved EG layer uniformity. Thus, it is of interest to understand the influence of substrate offcut on carrier mobility, surface morphology, step heights, and graphene growth rate. This study investigates EG grown on a unique single 3-inch substrate possessing a large variation in offcut, from +0.1 to -1° toward the [11-20] direction, enhancing the information obtained on offcut influence while eliminating other substrate influences. X-ray diffraction rocking curve and peak position maps of the (0012) reflection were performed prior to growth to evaluate the crystalline quality and local offcut, respectively. Electron mobilities of EG films were determined by van der Pauw Hall measurements. Surface morphology of the EG was investigated with scanning electron microscopy, while the step heights and terrace widths were measured using atomic force microscopy.
For a given set of conditions (1620°C for 30 min in 10 slm Ar), the EG morphology is dominated by straight steps that become wavy in character as the offcut decreases to zero degrees. Close to zero degrees, the step direction rotates from [11-20] to the [1-100] direction and the steps become further distorted. The step bunch heights generally decreased (from 8 to 3 nm) as the offcut decreased and the terrace widths increased (from 0.3 to ~3 µm); however, for the latter, the trend is interrupted near zero degrees offcut. In addition to such morphological assessments, the impact of growth parameters, where the growth temperatures investigated were 1540, 1580 and 1620 °C and growth times were 15, 30 and 45 min, on the electrical and structural properties of EG grown on this unique substrate will be reported. For example, samples grown at 1540 °C for 30 min on witness substrates with offcuts ranging from ~ 0.4 to 0.9° had large area mobilities ranging from 780 to 1100 cm2/Vs, where larger offcuts led to lower mobilities.
2:20 PM GR+EM+ET+NS+TF-MoA-2 Direct Determination of Dominant Scatterer in Graphene on SiO2
Jyoti Katoch, Duy Le, Talat Shahnaz Rahman, Masa Ishigami (University of Central Florida)
Freely suspended graphene sheets display high-field effect mobility, reaching 2´105 cm2/V s. Yet, suspended graphene sheets are fragile and impractical for most experiments and applications. Graphene sheets on SiO2 are easier to handle but possess low-carrier mobilities, which can vary by an order of magnitude from sample to sample. Poor and unpredictable transport properties reduce the utility of SiO2-bound graphene sheets for both fundamental and applied sciences. Therefore, understanding the impact of substrates is crucial for graphene science and technology.
We have measured the impact of atomic hydrogen with kinetic energy less than 250 meV on the transport property of graphene sheets as a function of hydrogen coverage and initial, pre-hydrogenation field-effect mobility. The saturation coverages for different devices are found to be proportional to their initial mobility, indicating that the number of native scatterers is proportional to the saturation coverage of hydrogen. In order to understand this correlation between the field effect mobility and the apparent affinity of atomic hydrogen to graphene, we have performed a detailed temperature programmed desorption study on hydrogen-dosed graphene sheets. Atomic hydrogen is found to physisorb on graphene with activation energy for desorption of 60 ± 10 meV, consistent with our theoretical calculations. The associated charge transfer expected for such small desorption energy indicates that atomic-scale defects and ripples are not responsible for determining the mobility of graphene on SiO2 and that charged impurities in substrates define the transport property of graphene on SiO2.
1. J. Katoch, J.H. Chen, R. Tsuchikawa, C. W. Smith, E. R. Mucciolo, and M. Ishigami, Physical Review B Rapid Communications, 82, 081417 (2010).
2:40 PM GR+EM+ET+NS+TF-MoA-3 Tuning Electronic Properties of Graphene by Controlling its Environment
Kirill Bolotin (Vanderbilt University)

Every atom of graphene, a monolayer of graphite, belongs to the surface. Therefore, the environment of graphene -- the substrate onto which graphene is deposited and any coating on top of graphene -- intimately affects the properties of graphene. In this talk, we demonstrate that both the mechanical and electrical properties of graphene can be tuned by varying its environment.

First, we discuss the dependence of electrical transport in graphene on the dielectric constant (k) of graphene’s environment. For graphene in vacuum (k=1) we observe very strong electron-electron interactions leading to robust fractional quantum Hall effect at temperatures up to 15K. By suspending graphene in liquids, we explore the regime of dielectric constants between ~1.5 and ~30. We observe the dependence of carrier scattering in graphene on k and demonstrate large values for room temperature mobility (>60,000 cm2/Vs) in ion-free liquids with high k. We also explore the rich interplay between the motion of ions inside liquids and transport of electrons in graphene. We observe signatures due to streaming potentials and Coulomb drag between ions in the liquid and electrons in graphene.

We also briefly address the mechanical properties of graphene and their dependence on graphene’s environment. We demonstrate that the built-in strain, the substrate adhesion force and even the thermal expansion coefficient of graphene depend on the substrate supporting graphene.

3:40 PM GR+EM+ET+NS+TF-MoA-6 Study of Impurity-Induced Inelastic Scattering on Suspended Graphene by Scanning Confocal Micro-Raman Spectroscopy
Li-Wei Huang, Chia-Seng Chang (Academia Sinica, Taiwan, Republic of China)
We utilized a polymer-based procedure to transfer the CVD-grown graphene onto a TEM copper grid. The heat treatment was performed on the graphene membrane in an argon/ hydrogen (Ar/H2) atmosphere at 400 ℃. After the transfer and heat treatment, TEM images, acquired by an ultra-high-vacuum transmission electron microscopy (UHV-TEM), demonstrated areas with distinguishable impurity distribution on the suspended graphene membrane. These areal impurity distributions can also be mapped by the scanning Raman spectroscopy correspondingly, indicating the influence of impurity-induced inelastic scattering. The results of this experiment show that the intensity ratio of Raman spectra 2D band over G band (I2D/IG) is proportional to minus fourth power of the inelastic scattering rate.
4:00 PM GR+EM+ET+NS+TF-MoA-7 The Adsorption of Molecules with Large Intrinsic Electrostatic Dipoles on Graphene
Lingmei Kong (Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln); Godohaldo Perez Medina (Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln, Univ. of Puerto Rico); Juan Colón Santana (Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln); Luis Rosa (Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln, Univ. of Puerto Rico); Lucie Routaboul, Pierre Braunstein (Maître de conférences de l'Université de Strasbourg, France); Bernard Doudin (Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, France); Chang-Mook Lee, Jaewu Choi (Kyung Hee Univ., Korea); Peter A. Dowben (Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln)

Both gold and graphene are excellent conductors, and one might expect that both conductors would fully screen the photoemission and inverse photoemission final states of a molecular adsorbate, but in fact this is not the case. The comparison of the electronic structure of p-quinonoid zwitterionic type molecules with a large intrinsic dipole of 10 Debyes adsorbed on both gold and graphene on copper substrates, shows that the interaction between the adsorbate molecules and graphene is very weak, confirming that graphene is chemically inert. We find that the photoemission and inverse photoemission final states are well screened for p-quinonoid zwitterionic dipolar molecules on gold. This is not observed in the case of this quinonoid zwitterion adsorbed on graphene on copper. This weaker screening is evident in a larger highest occupied molecular orbital to lowest unoccupied molecular orbital gap for the molecules on graphene. The larger highest occupied molecular orbital to lowest unoccupied molecular orbital gap for the molecules on graphene indicates that a much weaker screening on the photoemission and inverse photoemission final states for these dipolar molecules on graphene than that on gold. This work is reviewed in the context of other studies of molecular adsorption on graphene.

4:20 PM GR+EM+ET+NS+TF-MoA-8 Growth of and Interactions in Epitaxial Graphene Layers
A. Bostwick (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory); A. Walter, Th. Seyller (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); K. Horn, Eli Rotenberg (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)
The electronic properties of graphene has been investigated using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy at the MAESTRO* facility of the ALS** synchrotron in Berkeley, California. This laboratory is unique in its ability to grow sophisticated samples for in situ study using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and to subtly alter their properties by engineering their surfaces by chemical doping or thickness control. In this talk I will discuss the electronic properties of graphene, focusing on the role of dopants to control the charge density and as defects to disrupt the metallic conduction. By measuring the spectrum of “plasmaronic” quasiparticle excitations, we can demonstrate the scale-free nature of the Coulomb interaction in Dirac systems. Such effects are readily observed on quasi-free standing graphene samples doped with long-range scatterers. Doping with short-range scatterers, on the other hand, results in a loss of conduction which we interpret as a manifestation of strong (Anderson) localization.

*Microscopic and Electronic Structure Observatory

**Advanced Light Source

5:00 PM GR+EM+ET+NS+TF-MoA-10 Squeezing of the Graphene Dirac Cone Observed by Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy
Jungseok Chae, Suyong Jung, Yue Zhao, Nikolai B. Zhitenev, Joseph A. Stroscio (Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology / NIST); Andrea Young, Cory Dean, Lei Wang, Y. Gao, James C. Hone, Ken L. Shepard, Philip Kim (Columbia University)

The single-particle spectrum of graphene is described by massless Dirac quasiparticles with a linear energy-momentum dispersion relation. In this talk I examine the effect of electron interactions on the graphene energy dispersion as a function of both excitation energy E away from the Fermi energy and density n. To analyze the dispersion, we measure the Landau levels (LLs) in graphene on a hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) insulator in low magnetic fields by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. The experiments were performed in a custom designed cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope system operating at 4 K with applied magnetic fields from 0 T to 8 T. The graphene devices were fabricated by the method detailed in Dean et al. [1]. The disorder in graphene on hBN is reduced in comparison with the previous measurements in graphene on SiO2 [2] allowing us to observe the LLs in fields as low as 0.5 T. By fitting the LL energies obtained at constant density, we find that the energy dispersion remains linear, characterized by a momentum-independent renormalized velocity. However, the renormalized velocity is density dependent, showing a strong increase as the charge neutrality point is approached. The overall spectrum renormalization can be described as a squeezing of the Dirac cone angle due to electron-electron interactions at low densities. Interestingly, we also find that the renormalization of the dispersion velocity is affected by the local disorder potential and magnetic field, which is not described by current theory.

[1]. C. Dean, A. Young, I. Meric, C. Lee, L. Wang, S. Sorgenfrei, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, P. Kim, K. L. Shepard, and J. Hone, Nature Nanotech. 5, 722–726 (2010).

[2]. S. Jung, G. M. Rutter, N. N. Klimov, D. B. Newell, I. Calizo, A. R. Hight-Walker, N. B. Zhitenev, and J. A. Stroscio, Nature Phys. 7, 245–251 (2011).

5:20 PM GR+EM+ET+NS+TF-MoA-11 Interfacial Interaction of Graphene and Metal Surfaces Investigated by Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering
Liang Zhang (University of Science and Technology of China, Advanced Light Source); Jinghua Guo (Advance Light Source); Junfa Zhu (University of Science and Technology of China)

The synthesis of graphene on metal surfaces by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the most promising method to prepare single-layer and large-area graphene, which is a prerequisite for the fabrication of graphene-based electronic devices. Therefore, the graphene/metal interfaces have attracted much attention due to their importance in graphene synthesis by CVD processes. In this presentation, we report our recent studies on the electronic structure and band dispersion of graphene on different metal surfaces (Cu, Ir and Ni) by the means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS). The XAS spectra for graphene on metal surfaces show strong π* and σ* resonant features, indicating that the single-layer graphene films preserve the intrinsic symmetry of graphite. The resonant XES spectra of graphene on different metal surfaces change dramatically, especially for the features of π* resonances, which can be directly related to the different strength of hybridization between graphene and metal substrates. These significant spectra changes have been proved to be an effective measure for the bonding strength of graphene on different substrates: strong band dispersion can be observed when the interaction between graphene and metal substrate is weak (such as Cu), while the band dispersion is seriously disturbed when a strong hybridization between graphene and metal substrate (such as Ni) exists. These results provide basic understanding of graphene/metal interfacial interaction, which helps to develop graphene-based electronic devices with high performances.

Time Period MoA Sessions | Abstract Timeline | Topic GR Sessions | Time Periods | Topics | AVS2012 Schedule